Professor William Rugumamu
University of Dar es Salaam
As a consequence, it is evident that in some geographical areas, natural resources were and still are sustainably utilized while in others there have and still are evidence of environmental degradation (Stebbing,1935 Timberlake, 1985; Blaikie 1989; Juma and Ford
, 1992; Rugumamu
, 1993; Boyce, 2002).
These policies are tailored around the international donors' (the International Monetary Fund
, the World Bank
, United Nations agencies) perceptions of the causes of and solutions for Africa's underdevelopment (Blaikie, 1985; World Bank
1997; Juma and Ford
Their goal is to create conditions conducive to the play of free market forces and free flow of goods and services between country and the outside world! (Lal, et.al.
As noted by Rugumamu
(2001) among others, processes of globalization and their impacts have been documented at the macro-level in a variety of ways.
In some areas, the problem has since been associated with drought hazards, when in actual fact, drought is one of the precursors (Rugumamu, 1993).
This is a holistic view of environmental degradation propagated among others by Carpenter, (1980); Blaikie, (1985); Fierman, (1990); Shiva, (1991); Juma and Ford
, (1992); Rugumamu
, (1996); Boyce 2002).
In response to the declining land productivity, the Government of Tanzania has proclamated many programmes and policies since independence in order to check the situation but has met with limited success (Berry and Townshend, 1973; McAuslan 1980, DANIDA
It is imperative, therefore, to assess the impact of globalization, a new approach to annex Tanzania, on the environment and development.
The Case of Melela Village, Uluguru Mountains in Eastern Tanzania
This subsection outlines the environmental resource base on where economic globalisation articulates.
The tract of land of the Uluguru Mountains referred to is the leeward side represented by Melela village settlement as the centre stage of the thesis (Rugumamu 2000).
The village is located about 35 Km. in the neighbourhood of Morogoro municipality and along the Tanzania-Zambia Highway (TANZAM).
The current state is perpetuated by the parallel nature of traditional and modern laws casting a shadow on access to and control over resources, a prerequisite for tenure security and sustainable resource utilisation cum conservancy (Rugumamu 2000b).
Generally men, women and children work on the farm and take care of the livestock with some degree of specialization (Little, 1991; Rugumamu
Over and above these activities, women with the assistance of children are responsible for all the domestic chores.
At the end of the day women are more involved in food and cash crop as well as livestock production processes than men.
Agriculture in the semi-arid areas is characteristically subsistence oriented (Rugumamu 1996).
Creating knowledge in this way is hence an integral part of sustaining ecological and agricultural productivity in the SSA
And hence the use of cultural control techniques including botanical pesticides and locally adapted seed varieties currently in use by smallholders cannot be overemphasized (Anderson, et. al. 1996; Rugumamu
and Mtumbuka 1998).
Through participatory learning approaches, researchers should support the local development process through setting up research with the farmers to investigate problems and opportunities identified by farmers (Rugumamu, 1999).
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