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Wrong Temario Rivera?

Temario C. Rivera

Department of Political Science

University of the Philippines

Direct Phone: +63 *** *** ****direct phone


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University of the Philippines



Company Description

Specifically, the UPOU provides quality higher and continuing education to Filipinos through distance education. Its mission is to give its students formal qualification, as well as to develop in them the discipline and capability to become lifelong learners w... more

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Background Information

Employment History

CenPEG Vice-Chair and Professor

International Christian University


UP Open University


The Center for People Empowerment in Governance


Asia Pacific Basin




development studies

University of Wisconsin-Madison

Web References(47 Total References)

Are elections and international actors effective in promoting democracy? [cached]

However, there are other ways of legitimizing the reign of leaders, such as through authoritarian rule and coercion and repression and revolutionary conquest of power," said political scientist Dr. Temario Rivera, CenPEG vice-chair who facilitated the discussions.
Rivera, a former chair of the University of the Philippines' political science department in Diliman, is currently associate professor at the International Christian University in Tokyo. Largely because of American tutelage, many Filipinos have learned to rely heavily on elections to maintain government since the first elections under U.S. colonialism were held at the turn of the 20th century when new village leaders were chosen under a new political regime. However, Rivera said there are examples of legitimated authority where leaders are not accountable to the people. Among these are monarchies like Brunei, those in the Middle East, and in old England. Legitimization was also done through revolutionary conquest of power in such countries as Russia, China, Cuba, Vietnam, and elsewhere that made themselves independent through their anti-tsarist and anti-colonial struggles. In many of these countries, the revolutionary struggles were led by workers parties and people's armies guided by the socialist principle of proletarian dictatorship. Western concepts of political legitimization, Rivera said, propound that the best way to do it is through democratic rule when leaders are chosen and made accountable to the people through predictable political mechanisms. In the Philippines, the presidency is a powerful institution, with its power of the purse and appointment, development funding, political networks that can force realignments, and legitimate state powers. Local political clans have survived even the support of political parties, or have created their own political parties, such as the Garcias in Cebu or the Josons in Nueva Ecija, Rivera noted. Rivera said one must distinguish between minimalist and maximalist conceptions of democratic rule. The minimalist concept promotes a procedural definition of democracy through free, competitive elections and the guarantee of civil liberties. The maximalist concept, however, insists on a more substantive definition that stresses empowerment of the people so they could be more effective in advancing their interests and achieve power, not just through elections and other procedures, but in actually achieving desired outcomes such as provision of socioeconomic and political relief, and actual participation in processes. "That is the reason why in the Philippine Political Science Association, we are more careful in using terms and we use a lot of qualifiers, such as oligarchic democracy (to refer to elite-oriented politics)," said Rivera. Rivera pointed out, however, that in some countries where socioeconomic goals were achieved, the party system has been weak. Even activists, he said, have to recognize that so-called liberal reforms are progressive enough to lead to an upgrading of social, political and economic standards, such as the promulgation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the writs of habeas corpus and habeas data, and the formation of the International Criminal Court. "We should support these developments as they help (the people) objectively," he said. Electoral procedures and civil liberties must be upheld for elections to be seen as credible, and for electoral results to be accepted by the competing elites and the people, he said, amid observations that in the Philippines, many voters are not politically enlightened to help them distinguish among the political programs promoted by those seeking public office. Rivera asserts that even in Western Europe, United States, Japan, and South Korea, democratization happened late as the process of nation building was promoted first. In the Philippines, the weak state is shown by a highly politicized bureaucracy coupled by weak institutions of accountability, as exemplified by the Ombudsman, Commission on Audit, Comission on Human Rights and the Civil Service Comission. The weaker institutions have no capabilities to enforce even mundane state functions like peace and order, and taxation. The saving grace of weak states in the modern world, however, is the big participation of civil society groups that provide services where the state fails. Said Rivera, the electoral process in weak states is not an effective mechanism in choosing leaders who can effectively challenge status quo.

L - Books Sitemap [cached]

Landlords and capitalists by Temario C. Rivera, University of the Philippines.
Center for Integrative and Development Studies, Philippine Center for Policy Studies - 1994 - 168 pages

A vacillating President of his own class [cached]

Held at UP's National College of Public Administration and Governance (NCPAG), the forum was led by CenPEG Fellows and political analysts: Temario C. Rivera, CenPEG vice-chair and professor at the International Christian University, Tokyo; Dean Julkipli Wadi of the UP Institute of Islamic Studies; Ben Lim; Prof. Carl Marc Ramota, chair of UP Manila's Department of Social Sciences; volunteer lawyer for advocacy Atty.
Rivera stressed that what the country needs today is a President who will lead in initiating bold reforms in the political and economic spheres given the weak, clan state with poor developmental capabilities, weak party system, a culture of impunity that hinders the rule of law, and intense factionalism in government. "Fighting corruption is a critical step in improving governance but by itself will not address poverty or systemic inequalities," Rivera said. SOP Panel of speakers (L-R): Judge Cleto Villacorta (moderator), Sonny Africa, Ben Lim, UP NCPAG Dean Edna Co (welcome address), Temario Rivera, Julkipli Wadi (Dean, UP IIS), Carl Marc Ramota, lawyer Felix Carao, Jr., and Bobby Tuazon.

Conference calls for people-centered policy actions for Asian development and peace [cached]

Moderators for the morning and after sessions were Prof. Temario C. Rivera, also CenPEG Board chair, and CenPEG Executive Director Evita L. Jimenez, who is also ADePT convener and coordinator.
Morning session moderator Prof. Temario C. Rivera

CenPEG releases travelogue [cached]

During the program, the book was introduced by Board Chair, Temario C. Rivera.

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