Here, Stephen Dedalus
walks along the beach with his
"Am I walking into eternity along Sandymount strand?
Crush, crack, crick, crick.
Wild sea money.
Dominie Deasy kens them a'.
Like Clennam, Stephen
responds to rhythmic sound (the "crush, crack, crick, crick" of his
own feet tramping across the mast) by unconsciously calling up words to suit that rhythm.
conscious mind follows on the heels of his
unconsciousness, analyzing the meter of the song that has floated into his
also takes note of the very process by which his
footfalls have established a rhythm that in turn has called to mind these lines.
self-corrections (". . . you see.
I hear . . ." and ". . . marching.
No, agallop . . .") further the impression of internal dynamics, of a mind in dialogue with itself.
Both Clennam and Stephen are stimulated by sound, but in Stephen's case there is no narrator to explicate the relationship between external stimulus and internal response.
absence, the reader him- or herself must construct the associative chain of logic that connects the momentarily blind Stephen's question, the onomatopoeic "crush, crack, crick, crick" of his
boots on sea-shingle, the equating of shells and currency, and the relentlessly rhythmic lines of poetry that invade the text.
In Ulysses, Stephen Dedalus
is similarly tormented by memory.
mother's death, his
tumultuous relationship with his
father, and his
fear of artistic failure return to haunt him.
Like Mr. Dorrit, he
goes out of his
way to avoid sights and even words that will revive in him unhappy memories.
In discussing Shakespeare's Hamlet with some friends, Stephen
interrupts the conversation before they reach the ghost's line "If thou didst ever thy dear father love.
said with tingling energy. (187-88)
Much as Dorrit
redirected the course of a carriage, Stephen
redirects the course of a conversation to avoid a mnemonic trigger.
, like Hamlet himself, is haunted.
, for example, looking at the ocean from atop the Martello Tower, remembers the bowl of bile that rested by his
dying mother's bed (8).
It is an image and a comparison that could only appear before Stephen's mind's eye, and speaks to the degree to which guilt and traumatic memories color everything he