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Wrong Siaka Stevens?

Dr. Siaka Probyn Stevens

Photographer

Biography

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Biography

Background Information

Employment History

President

Sierra Leone Telecommunications Company Ltd

Affiliations

Member
Port Loko East Constituency

Member
University Court

Nominated Member
Protectorate Assembly

Member
The National Commission for Social Action

Member
U.S. Agency for International Development

Member
Central Confederation Of Trade Unions

Member
Sierra Leone Association of Journalists

Member
Sierra Leone Labour Congress

Member
Sierra Leone Teachers' Union

Member
Sutterton Label Printers and Packaging Limited

Founder
APC Party

Founder
SLPP Party

Member
House of Representatives

Member
Freetown West II

Secretary-General and Deputy Leader
People's National Party

Co-Founder
United Mine Workers Union

Founder
Sierra Leone People's Party

Founder
Sierra Leone Organisation Society

Founder
tripartite Mano River Union

Education

Albert Academy

labor relations

Ruskin College

labor relations

Ruskin College of Oxford University

diploma

trade unionism

Ruskin College

Web References (144 Total References)


Famous Photographers - page 1

www.topfamousbiography.com [cached]

Siaka Probyn Stevens Biography of Siaka Probyn Stevens: Sierra Leone labor leader and politician co-founded SLPP Party 1951 founded APC Party 1960 prime minister of Sierra Leone 1967, 1968-1971 1st president of Sierra Leone 1971-1985 ...


Sierra Leone | EducAid

www.educaid.org.uk [cached]

All of the twenty-four members of the Sierra Leonean delegation were prominent and well-respected politicians including Sir Milton's younger brother lawyer Sir Albert Margai, the outspoken trade unionist Siaka Stevens, SLPP strongman Lamina Sankoh, outspoken Creole activist Isaac Wallace-Johnson, Paramount chief Ella Koblo Gulama, educationist Mohamed Sanusi Mustapha, Dr John Karefa-Smart, professor Kande Bureh, lawyer Sir Banja Tejan-Sie, former Freetown's Mayor Eustace Henry Taylor Cummings educationist Amadu Wurie, and Creole diplomat Hector Reginald Sylvanus Boltman.

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On the conclusion of talks in London, Britain agreed to grant Sierra Leone Independence on the 27 of April 1961, however, the outspoken trade unionist Siaka Stevens was the only delegate who refused to sign Sierra Leone's declaration of Independence on the grounds that there had been a secret defence pact between Sierra Leone and Britain; another point of contention by Stevens was the Sierra Leonean government's position that there would be no elections held before independence which would effectively shut him out of Sierra Leone's political process. Upon their return to Freetown on May 4, 1960, Stevens was promptly expelled from the People's National Party (PNP).
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Siaka Stevens, in 1961, formed an alliance with several prominent northern politicians like Sorie Ibrahim Koroma, Christian Alusine-Kamara Taylor, Mohamed.O.Bash-Taqi, Ibrahim Bash-Taqi S.A.T. Koroma and C.A. Fofana to form their own political party called the All People's Congress (APC) in opposition of the SLPP government.
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Stevens took advantage of the dissatisfaction with the ruling SLPP among some prominent politicians from the Northern part of Sierra Leone to form the APC; and Stevens used the Northern part of Sierra Leone as his political base.
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Following the Freetown riots, the APC, with its leader Siaka Stevens, narrowly won a small majority seats in Parliament over the SLPP in a closely contested 1967 Sierra Leone general election and Stevens was sworn in as Prime Minister of March 21, 1967. Within hours after taking office, Stevens was ousted in a bloodless military coup led by the commander of the army Brigadier General David Lansana, a close ally of Sir Albert Margai who had appointed him to the position in 1964.
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Brigadier Lansana placed Stevens under house arrest in Freetown and insisted the determination of office of the Prime Minister should await the election of the tribal representatives to the house. On March 23, 1967, A group of senior military officers in the Sierra Leone Army led by Brigadier Anrew Juxon-Smith overrode this action by seizing control of the government, arresting Brigadier Lansana, and suspending the constitution. The group constituted itself as the National Reformation Council (NRC) with Brigadier Anrew Juxon-Smith as its chairman and Governor-General. In April 1968, a group of senior military officers who called themselves the Anti-Corruption Revolutionary Movement led by Brigadier General John Amadu Bangura overthrew the NRC junta. The ACRM juntas arrested many senior NRC members. The democratic constitution was restored, and power was handed back to Stevens, who at last assumed the office of Prime Minister.
Stevens assumed power again in 1968 with a great deal of hope and ambition. Much trust was placed upon him as he championed multi-party politics. Stevens had campaigned on a platform of bringing the tribes together under socialist principles. During his first decade or so in power, Stevens renegotiated some of what he called "useless prefinanced schemes" contracted by his predecessors, both Albert Margai of the SLPP and Juxon-Smith of the NRC. Some of these policies by the SLPP and the NRC were said to have left the country in an economically deprived state. Stevens reorganized the country's refinery, the government-owned Cape Sierra Hotel, and a Cement factory. He cancelled Juxon-Smith's construction of a Church and Mosque on the grounds of Victoria Park. Stevens began efforts that would later bridge the distance between the provinces and the city. Roads and hospitals were constructed in the provinces, and Paramount Chiefs and provincial peoples became a prominent force in Freetown.
Under the pressure of several coup attempts, real and perceived, Stevens' rule grew more and more authoritarian, and his relationship with some of his ardent supporters deteriorated. He removed the SLPP party from competitive politics in general elections, some believed, through the use of violence and intimidation. To maintain the support of the military, Stevens retained the popular John Amadu Bangura as the head of the Sierra Leone Armed Forces.
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In November 1968, unrest in the provinces led Stevens to declare a state of emergency. Brigadier General Bangura, who had reinstated Stevens as Prime Minister, was widely considered the only person who could put the brakes on Stevens. The army was devoted to Bangura, and it was believed, in some quarters, that this made him potentially dangerous to Stevens.
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Guinean troops requested by Stevens to support his government were in the country from 1971 to 1973.
In April 1971, a new republican constitution was adopted under which Stevens became President. In the 1972 by-elections the opposition SLPP complained of intimidation and procedural obstruction by the APC and militia. These problems became so severe that the SLPP boycotted the 1973 general election; as a result the APC won 84 of the 85 elected seats. An alleged plot to overthrow president Stevens failed in 1974 and its leaders were executed. In March 1976, Stevens was elected without opposition for a second five-year term as president.
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Stevens is generally criticised for dictatorial methods and government corruption, but reduced ethnic polarisation in government by incorporating members of various ethnic groups into his all-dominating APC government.
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Siaka P. Stevens, who had been head of state of Sierra Leone for 18 years, retired from that position in November 1985, although he continued his role as chairman of the ruling APC party. In August 1985 the APC named military commander Maj. Gen. Joseph Saidu Momoh, Stevens' own choice, as the party candidate to succeed Stevens. As head of the Sierra Leone Armed Forces, Major General Momoh was very loyal to Stevens who had appointed him to the position.
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With the lack of new faces in the new APC cabinet under president Momoh and the return of many of the old faces from Stevens government, criticisms soon arose that Momoh was simply perpetuating the rule of Stevens. The next couple of years under the Momoh administration were characterised by corruption, which Momoh defused by sacking several senior cabinet ministers. To formalise his war against corruption, President Momoh announced a "Code of Conduct for Political Leaders and Public Servants.


These included the Father of the ...

standardtimespress.org [cached]

These included the Father of the nation Sir Milton Margai (Albert Academy), his half brother Sir Albert Margai (St Edward's Secondary School) who was one of seven foundation students of the school in 1922, President Siaka Stevens (Albert Academy), Joseph Saidu Momoh (WAM Collegiate School), the former NPRC leader Captain Valentine Strasser (The SL Grammar School) and President Ahmed Tejan Kabba (St. Edward's Secondary School), with President Ernest Koroma being the first and only Government school product ever to occupy State House, and strangely enough from the relatively new Magburaka Boys' Secondary School and for a brief period, Julius Maada Bio military ruler (Bo School).

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The former Soviet Union came to our rescue in this country, thanks to the Late President Siaka Stevens and did the unprecedented from the 1970s right up to the eighties by offering hundreds of scholarships annually to our students who went to pursue different courses of study in the Soviet Union. Medical doctors, Agriculturists, Dentists International Law etc.
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The All Peoples' Congress (APC) under President Siaka Stevens did build the two lane Mange and Kambia bridges, a very outstanding piece of legacy for his rule.


APC party launches Asia branch in China as Secretary General predicts not Less than 75 Parliamentary seats will be won in Sierra Leone | Newstime Africa

www.newstimeafrica.com [cached]

Siaka P. Stevens - First Executive President of Sierra Leone

...
Siaka Probyn Stevens - First Executive President of Sierra Leone
Siaka Probyn Stevens (24 August 1905 - 29 May 1988) was the third prime minister of Sierra Leone from 1967...


Siaka Probyn Stevens - First ...

www.newstimeafrica.com [cached]

Siaka Probyn Stevens - First Executive President of Sierra Leone

...
Siaka P. Stevens - First Executive President of Sierra Leone
...
Siaka P. Stevens - First Executive President of Sierra Leone
Siaka Probyn Stevens (24 August 1905 - 29 May 1988) was the third prime minister of Sierra Leone from 1967 to 1971 and the first president of Sierra Leone from 1971 to 1985. Although criticised for his dictatorial rule, Stevens is known for reducing the ethnic polarisation in the government of Sierra Leone by incorporating members of various ethnic groups into the government.
Stevens and his All People's Congress (APC) party won the closely contested 1967 Sierra Leone general elections over the incumbent Prime Minister Sir Albert Margai of the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP).
...
In April 1971, Stevens made Sierra Leone a republic and he became the first President of Sierra Leone a day after the constitution had been ratified by the Parliament of Sierra Leone.
Stevens served as Chairman of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) from 1 July 1980 to 24 June 1981, and engineered the creation of the Mano River Union, a three-country economic federation of Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea.
Stevens retired from office at the end of his term on 28 November 1985. After pressuring all other potential successors to step aside, he chose Major-General Joseph Saidu Momoh, the commander of the Sierra Leone Armed Forces, as his successor.
Early life Siaka Probyn Stevens was born on 24 August 1905 in Moyamba, Moyamba District in the Southern Province of Sierra Leone to a Limba father and a Mende mother. Although born in Moyamba, Stevens was largely raised in Freetown. Stevens completed his primary education in Freetown and completed secondary school at Albert Academy in Freetown, before joining the Sierra Leone Police Force. From 1923 to 1930, Stevens rose to the rank of First Class Sergeant and Musketry Instructor.
From 1931 to 1946, he worked on the construction of the Sierra Leone Development Company (DELCO) railway, linking the Port of Pepel with the iron ore mines at Marampa. In 1943, he helped co-found the United Mine Workers Union and was appointed to the Protectorate Assembly in 1946 to represent worker interests. In 1947, Stevens studied labour relations at Ruskin College.
Political career In 1951, Stevens co-founded the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP) and was elected to the Legislative Council. A year later, he became Sierra Leone's first Minister of Mines, Lands, and Labor. In 1957, he was elected to the House of Representatives as a member for Port Loko constituency, but lost his seat as a result of an election petition.
After disagreements with the SLPP leadership, Stevens broke ties with the party and co-founded the People's National Party (PNP), of which he was the first secretary-general and deputy leader. In 1959, he participated in independence talks in London. When the talks concluded, however, he was the only delegate who refused to sign the agreement on the grounds that there had been a secret defence pact between Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom. Another point of contention was the Sierra Leonean government's position that there would be no elections held before independence, which would effectively shut him out of the political process. He was promptly expelled from the PNP upon his return from the talks. Stevens then launched the Elections Before Independence Movement (EBIM).
After successfully exploiting the disenchantment of northern and eastern ethnic groups with the SLPP, along with the creation of an alliance with the Sierra Leone Progressive Independence Movement (SLPIM), He was one of the 8TH member's of the APC after it was formed on 20 March 1960.
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Sir. Albert Margai who would later return to the SLPP and become Prime Minister, and Siaka P. Stevens who would also later become Prime Minister and subsequently President of Sierra Leone.
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In elections held on 17 March 1967, the APC won by an extremely narrow margin, and Stevens was appointed Prime Minister, but he was arrested in only an astonishing several minutes after taking office during a military coup.
After a brief period of military rule, Stevens reassumed the post of Prime Minister on 26 April 1968. In April 1971, a republican constitution was introduced. It was ratified by the House of Representatives on 20 April. A day later, Stevens became the country's first president, with wide executive and legislative powers.
The Stevens Presidency In 1973, the first elections under the new constitution were held. The polls were marred by violence and were boycotted by the SLPP, which gave the APC all 85 seats in the House of Representatives. In March 1976 Stevens was re-elected President unopposed by the House. Stevens's vice-president from 1971 until leaving office in 1985 was Sorie Ibrahim Koroma.
Throughout the remainder of the 1970s, Stevens continued to consolidate his power, which culminated in a 1978 referendum on a new constitution that would create a one-party state-though the country had effectively been a one-party state since becoming a republic. Stevens billed the proposed one-party system as more African than Western-style democracy. However, the country had been a de facto one-party state since Sierra Leone became a republic. On 12 June, 97.1% of voters were reported to have voted for the new one-party constitution, an implausibly high total that could have only been obtained by massive fraud.[2] Observers agreed that the elections had been heavily manipulated by the government. Proving this, even areas where the SLPP was still dominant were reported as supporting the one-party state by landslide margins.
Following the election, all opposition members of the House of Representatives were required to join Stevens's APC or lose their seats. Two years after being re-elected for a five-year term, Stevens was sworn in for an additional term of seven years, having by then adopted the title of "Dr."[citation needed] He also became known as "Pa Shaki".[3]
President Stevens served as Chairman of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) from 1 July 1980 to 24 June 1981, and engineered the creation of the Mano River Union, a three country economic federation of Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea.
Stevens' regime was very repressive and corrupt, even by African standards of the time. Many of his opponents, some of which were once close associates, were imprisoned and killed. The Internal Security Unit, a gang of unemployed urban youths amply supplied with drugs, was deployed as Stevens' personal death squad.[2]
Among his close associates sent to the gallows were John Amadu Bangura, who had once plucked Stevens from political oblivion when the army obliterated civilian politics after the 1967 Huha elections; at that time, Stevens had been down and out, living in exile in Conakry, Guinea, with his main remaining option, a planned assault on the sovereignty of Sierra Leone and her citizens.
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Bangura, in turn, handed over power to Siaka Stevens as prime minister (Kpana:2005).
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Stevens also grossly mismanaged the economy. He and his closest colleagues looted state resources, to the point that the state was unable to supply basic services. The education system was more or less non-existent.[2] The poverty was especially pronounced in rural areas, which were largely isolated from Freetown. Although he had retired by the time of the Sierra Leone Civil War in 1991, the impact of his political, social, and economic policies directly contributed to that conflict.
Retirement Stevens retired from office at the end of his term on 28 November 1985. After pressuring all other potential successors to step aside, Major-General Joseph Saidu Momoh was sworn in as the new President of the Republic.
He died on 29 May 1988 in Freetown.
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Tags:All People's Congress, Dr Mohamed Forna, First Executive President, President Siaka Probyn Stevens, Sierra Leone, Third Prime Minister

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