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This profile was last updated on 9/14/12  and contains information from public web pages.

Dr. Siaka Probyn Stevens

Wrong Dr. Siaka Probyn Stevens?

Chairman

All People's Congress
 
Background

Employment History

  • President
    Sierra Leone
  • First President
    Sierra Leone
  • Prime Minister
    Sierra Leone
  • Executive President
    Sierra Leone Live
  • President
    Republic
  • President
    Siaka Stevens
  • President - Part III
    Siaka Stevens
  • Prime Minister

Board Memberships and Affiliations

Education

  • Albert Academy
  • labor relations
    Ruskin College
200 Total References
Web References
However, the outspoken trade unionist ...
www.aloarabs.com, 14 Sept 2012 [cached]
However, the outspoken trade unionist Siaka Stevens was the only delegate who refused to sign Sierra Leone's declaration of Independendence on the grounds that there had been a secret defence pact between Sierra Leone and Britain; another point of contention by Stevens was the Sierra Leonean government's position that there would be no elections held before independence which would effectively shut him out of Sierra Leone's political process.[36] Upon their return to Freetown on 4 May 1960, Stevens was promptly expelled from the People's National Party (PNP). Opposition of the SLPP government On 24 September 1960, Outspoken critic of the SLPP government, Siaka Stevens, formed an alliance with several prominent northern politicians including Sorie Ibrahim Koroma, Christian Alusine-Kamara Taylor, Mohammed Bash-Taqui, S.A.T. Koroma, Kawusu Konteh, Allieu Badarr Koroma, S.A. Fofana and Mucktarru Kallay to form their own political party called the All People's Congress (APC) in opposition of the SLPP government.
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Stevens took advantage of the dissatisfaction with the ruling SLPP among some prominent politicians from the Northern part of Sierra Leone to form the APC; and Stevens used the Northern part of Sierra Leone as his political base.
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The leader of the main oppositon APC, Siaka Stevens, along with outspoken critic of the SLPP government, Isaac Wallace-Johnson, were arrested and placed under house arrested in Freetown, along with sixteen others charged with disrupting the independence celebration.[37] In May 1962, Sierra Leone held its first general election as an Independent nation.
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Three military coups, 1967-1968 The APC, with its leader Siaka Stevens, narrowly won a small majority seats in Parliament over the SLPP in a closely contested 1967 Sierra Leone general election and Stevens was sworn in as Prime Minister on 26 April 1967. Within hours after taking office, Stevens was ousted in a bloodless military coup led by the commander of the Sierra Leone Armed Forces Brigadier General David Lansana, a close ally of Sir Albert Margai who had appointed him to the position in 1964.
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Brigadier Lansana placed Stevens under house arrest in Freetown and insisted the determination of office of the Prime Minister should await the election of the tribal representatives to the house. On 23 March 1967, a group of senior military officers in the Sierra Leone Army led by Brigadier Andrew Juxon-Smith overrode this action by seizing control of the government, arresting Brigadier Lansana, and suspending the constitution. The group constituted itself as the National Reformation Council (NRC) with Brigadier Andrew Juxon-Smith as its chairman and Head of State of the country.[39] On 18 April 1968, a group of senior military officers who called themselves the Anti-Corruption Revolutionary Movement led by Brigadier General John Amadu Bangura overthrew the NRC junta. The ACRM juntas arrested many senior NRC members. The constitution was reinstated, and power was returned to Stevens, who at last assumed the office of Prime Minister. .[40] Stevens' government and one-party state Stevens assumed power again in 1968 with a great deal of hope and ambition. Much trust was placed upon him as he championed multi-party politics. Stevens had campaigned on a platform of bringing the tribes together under socialist principles. During his first decade or so in power, Stevens renegotiated some of what he called "useless prefinanced schemes" contracted by his predecessors, both Albert Margai of the SLPP and Juxon-Smith of the NRC. Some of these policies by the SLPP and the NRC were said to have left the country in an economically deprived state. Stevens reorganized the country's refinery, the government-owned Cape Sierra Hotel, and a Cement factory. He cancelled Juxon-Smith's construction of a Church and Mosque on the grounds of Victoria Park. Stevens began efforts that would later bridge the distance between the provinces and the city. Roads and hospitals were constructed in the provinces, and Paramount Chiefs and provincial peoples became a prominent force in Freetown. APC political rally in the northern town of Kabala outside the home of supporters of the rival SLPP in 1968 Under pressure of several coup attempts, real and perceived, Stevens' rule grew more and more authoritarian, and his relationship with some of his ardent supporters deteriorated. He removed the SLPP party from competitive politics in general elections, some believed, through the use of violence and intimidation. To maintain the support of the military, Stevens retained the popular John Amadu Bangura as the head of the Sierra Leone Armed Forces.
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In November 1968, unrest in the provinces led Stevens to declare a state of emergency across the country. Many senior officers in the Sierra Leone Army were greatly disappointed with Stevens' policies; but non could confront Stevens. Brigadier General Bangura, who had reinstated Stevens as Prime Minister, was widely considered the only person who could put the brakes on Stevens. The army was devoted to Bangura, and it was believed, in some quarters, that this made him potentially dangerous to Stevens.
At the final stage of the ...
www.apctimes.com, 2 Sept 2012 [cached]
At the final stage of the constitutional talks in London, Siaka Stevens - leader and founder of the APC - refused to sign the final document for independence on the grounds that Sierra Leone will not attain full Independence since the queen of England remained as our country's head of state. Stevens also objected to the Defense Pact existing between Sierra Leone and Britain which he felt was a threat to the security and territorial integrity of Sierra Leone. Siaka Stevens opined that if independence was to come, then it should come out of the will of the people. And so he called for Elections Before Independence.
Despite Siaka Stevens' objection, Sir Milton went ahead with plans to have Independence on April 27 1961.
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Fearing that Siaka Stevens and his supporters in the Election Before Independence Movement (which became the All Peoples Congress) will disrupt the Independence celebration and mar the visit of Queen Elizabeth II, Sir Milton ordered for their arrest and detention.
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When Siaka Stevens became Prime Minister after the military interregnum of 1967, he quickly worked toward a Republican Constitution. It was Stevens' 1971 Republican Constitution that brought Sierra Leone to full political sovereignty. Siaka Probyn Stevens, the leader and founder of the All People's Congress became the country's first executive president, replacing the Queen of England as Head of State.
History
www.embassyofsierraleone.net, 29 Sept 2011 [cached]
In a closely contested general elections in March 1967, Sierra Leone Governor General Henry Josiah Lightfoot Boston declared the new Prime Minister to be Siaka Stevens, candidate of the All People's Congress (APC) and Mayor of Freetown. Hours after taking office, Prime Minister Stevens was ousted in a bloodless coup led by Brigadier David Lansana, the Commander of the Armed Forces however, a group of senior military officers overrode this action by seizing control of the government on March 23, 1968, arresting Brigadier Lansana and suspending the constitution. The group constituted itself as the National Reformation Council (NRC) with Brigadier Andrew Juxon-Smith as its chairman. In April 1968, the NRC was overthrown by a group of military officers who called themselves the Anti-Corruption Revolutionary Movement (ACRM), led by Brigadier John Amadu Bangura. The ACRM imprisoned senior NRC members, restored the constitution and reinstated Siaka Stevens as Prime Minister.
The return to civilian rule led to by-elections beginning in fall 1968 and the appointment of an all-APC cabinet. Calm was not completely restored. In November 1968, Siaka Stevens declared a state of emergency after provincial disturbances. In March 1971 the government survived an unsuccessful military coup and in July 1974 it uncovered an alleged military coup plot. The leaders of both plots were tried and executed. In 1977, student demonstrations against the government disrupted Sierra Leone politics.
On April 19, 1971, Parliament declared Sierra Leone a Republic. Siaka Stevens, then prime minister, became the nation's first president, and in March 1976 he was elected without opposition for a second five-year term as president. In 1978, Parliament approved a new constitution making the country a one-party stat. In the 1978 referendum the APC was made the only legal political party in Sierra Leone.
President Sir Siaka Stevens retired in November, 1985 after being President for 14 years, but continued to be chairman of the APC. The APC named a new presidential candidate to succeed Stevens. He was Major General Joseph Saidu Momh, the commander of the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces, and Stevens' own choice to succeed him.
SIAKA PROBYN STEVENS (1905-1988) FIRST EXECUTIVE PRESIDENT OF SIERRA LEONE | Sierra Leone Live
sierraleonelive.com, 12 May 2014 [cached]
SIAKA PROBYN STEVENS (1905-1988) FIRST EXECUTIVE PRESIDENT OF SIERRA LEONE
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SIAKA PROBYN STEVENS
Siaka Stevens was born on August 24, 1905 at Moyamba in what is now the Southern Province. He was educated at Albert Academy and much later at Ruskin College, Oxford, where he studied Trade Unionism. On leaving school, Stevens jointed the Sierra Leone Police Force and rose to the rank of First Class Sergeant and Musketry Instructor. From 1931 to 1946, he worked on the construction of the Sierra Leone Development Company (DELCO) railway, linking the Port of Pepel with the iron ore mines at Marampa. He later became station master and stenographer at Marampa. A co-founder of the United Mine Workers Union, he was appointed to the Protectorate Assembly in 1946 to represent the interests of workers. Elected to the Legislative Council in 1951 as second protectorate member, he was appointed in 1952 as Sierra Leone's first Minister of Mines, Lands and Labour. In 1957, he was elected to the House of Representatives as member for Port Loko East Constituency, but lost his seat as a result of an election petition. He later fell out with the leadership of the ruling S.L.P.P. and broke away to help found the People's National Party, of which he became the first Secretary-General and Deputy Leader.
When the United National Front (U.N.F.) government was formed in 1959, Siaka Stevens was not included in the cabinet since he had earlier lost his seat due to an election petition against him. He did however participate in the Independence Talks in London as the Deputy Leader of the P.N.P., which had then become part of the U.N.F. On the conclusion of the talks, however, Siaka Stevens was the only delegate who refused to sign the Independence Agreement on the grounds that there had been a secret defence pact between Sierra Leone and Britain. The U.N.F. position that there would be no elections before independence may have been the main reason for Siaka's refusal to sign, since this position would have effectively shut him out of the political process. Siaka was promptly expelled from the party on this return from Britain, but less than a month after his expulsion, he launched his Elections Before Independence Movement (EBIM) which was later to be transformed into the A.P.C.
Siaka Stevens successfully exploited the disenchantment of northern and eastern ethnic groups with the S.L.P.P. to forge the A.P.C. with such northern leaders as S.I. Koroma, C.A. Kamara-Taylor, M.O. Bash-Taqui, S.A.T. Koroma and S.A. Fofana, and to forge an alliance with the prominent Kono political leader, PC T.S. M'briwa, and his Sierra Leone Independence Movement (S.L.I.M.) In the 1962 general elections, Stevens' A.P.C. became the main opposition party, winning sixteen seats, while Stevens himself was returned to parliament as member for Freetown West II. Siaka Stevens successfully exploited the disenchantment of northern and eastern ethnic groups with the S.L.P.P. to forge the A.P.C. with such northern leaders as S.I. Koroma, C.A. Kamara-Taylor, M.O. Bash-Taqui, S.A.T. Koroma and S.A. Fofana, and to forge an alliance with the prominent Kono political leader, PC T.S. M'briwa, and his Sierra Leone Independence Movement (S.L.I.M.) In the 1962 general elections, Stevens' A.P.C. became the main opposition party, winning sixteen seats, while Stevens himself was returned to parliament as member for Freetown West II.
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His party won the 1967 general elections, with Stevens retaining his seat in the Freetown West II constituency. He was appointed Prime Minister, but was detained by the military and denied the Premiership until the overthrow of the military government of the National Reformation Council (N.R.C.) in 1968, when he was reappointed Prime Minister. In April 1971, he introduced a Republican Constitution and became President of the Republic a day after the constitution had been ratified by parliament.
The first general elections under the Republican Constitution were held in 1973, but the elections were marked by so much violence that the opposition S.L.P.P. withdrew. The year 1978 saw the introduction of a one party constitution, and this marked the end of opposition parties in Sierra Leone. Siaka Stevens survived two attempted coups d'etat, and met violence with violence. However, as he succeeded in consolidating power in his hands, violence and political tensions gradually subsided.
Siaka Stevens sought to open the ranks of the party to all sectors of the community and to maintain a rough balance between ethnic groups, academics, clerics, businessmen and traditional rulers. His later years in office saw the gradual moulding of diverse groups into a unified nation, the progressive lessening of cultural and regional tensions, and the creation of a more homogeneous political community. The overall impact of these developments was to provide relative stability and gradual acceptance by all Sierra Leoneans of the authority of the A.P.C. government. It was little wonder therefore that there was no hitch when the time came for Siaka Stevens to pass on the mantle of leadership to a younger man. He will long be remembered for his wise sayings, and it could be said that he heard "Sh Sh..." and, being the wise chicken he always has been, got out of the way before a stone hit him on the head.
Doctor Stevens died on 28th May 1988 in Freetown.
Famous Photographers - page 1
www.topfamousbiography.com, 15 Jan 2014 [cached]
Siaka Probyn Stevens Biography of Siaka Probyn Stevens: Sierra Leone labor leader and politician co-founded SLPP Party 1951 founded APC Party 1960 prime minister of Sierra Leone 1967, 1968-1971 1st president of Sierra Leone 1971-1985 ...
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