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This profile was last updated on 6/26/09  and contains information from public web pages.

Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher

Wrong Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher?
 
Background

Employment History

Board Memberships and Affiliations

Education

  • B.A. , astronomy
    Cambridge
200 Total References
Web References
Taguchi's reaction to the classical desain ...
mtode.taguchi.su.wikimiki.org, 26 June 2009 [cached]
Taguchi's reaction to the classical desain percobaan methodology of R. A. Fisher was that it was perfectly adapted in seeking to improve the mean outcome of a process.
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Taguchi developed much of his thinking in isolation from the school of R. A. Fisher, only coming into direct contact in 1954.
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In his later work, R. A. Fisher had started to consider the prospect of using design of experiments to understand variation in a wider inductive basis.
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Statistikawan nu ngamimitian mikirkeun metoda keur desain percobaan nyaeta Sir Ronald A. Fisher. Anjeunna ngajelaskeun kumaha tes hypothesis hiji wanoja ngabedakan mana nu mimiti diasupkeun kana cangkir antara susu jeung gula. Katempona siga hal nu sapele, cara anjeunna keur ngagambarkeun ide penting dina desain percobaan. Desain percobaan diwangun dumasar kana analisa varian, kumpulan model nu varianna diobservasi dibagi-bagi kana sababaraha komponen, dumasar kana faktor nu beda saperti diestimasi jeung/atawa di tes. Pangwangunan teori linear model nuturkeun sarta ngaleuwihan kasus nu ditalungktik samemehna. Kiwari, uraian teori nu leuwih jentre dina abstract algebra sarta combinatorics. Tempo oge: ngarencanakeun panalungtikan statistik - survey sampling - independent variable - dependent variable
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Statistikawan nu ngamimitian mikirkeun metoda keur desain percobaan nyaeta Sir Ronald A. Fisher. Anjeunna ngajelaskeun kumaha tes hypothesis hiji wanoja ngabedakan mana nu mimiti diasupkeun kana cangkir antara susu jeung gula. Katempona siga hal nu sapele, cara anjeunna keur ngagambarkeun ide penting dina desain percobaan. Desain percobaan diwangun dumasar kana analisa varian, kumpulan model nu varianna diobservasi dibagi-bagi kana sababaraha komponen, dumasar kana faktor nu beda saperti diestimasi jeung/atawa di tes. Pangwangunan teori linear model nuturkeun sarta ngaleuwihan kasus nu ditalungktik samemehna. Kiwari, uraian teori nu leuwih jentre dina abstract algebra sarta combinatorics. Tempo oge: ngarencanakeun panalungtikan statistik - survey sampling - independent variable - dependent variable
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Ronald A. Fisher Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS (February 17, 1890 - July 29, 1962) was an extraordinarily talented evolutionary biologist, geneticist and statistician.
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- Fisher Box J (1978) R. A. Fisher: The Life of a Scientist, New York: Wiley. - Yates F & Mather K (1963) Ronald Aylmer Fisher. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society of London 9:91-120 [http://www.library.adelaide.edu.au/digitised/fisher/raf.pdf Available on University of Adelaide website]
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- [http://www.economics.soton.ac.uk/staff/aldrich/fisherguide/rafreader.htm A Guide to R. A. Fisher by John Aldrich]
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- [http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Fisher/Methods/ Classics in the History of Psychology for the first edition of Statistical Methods for Research Workers] Fisher, Ronald Fisher, Ronald Fisher, Ronald Fisher, Ronald
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- [http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Fisher/Methods/ Classics in the History of Psychology for the first edition of Statistical Methods for Research Workers] Fisher, Ronald Fisher, Ronald Fisher, Ronald Fisher, Ronald
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- [http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Fisher/Methods/ Classics in the History of Psychology for the first edition of Statistical Methods for Research Workers] Fisher, Ronald Fisher, Ronald Fisher, Ronald Fisher, Ronald
Ronald Fisher - InformationBlast
www.informationblast.com, 28 May 2007 [cached]
Ronald Fisher - Information Blast
Ronald Fisher - Information Blast
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Ronald Fisher
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Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, F.R.S. (February 17, 1890 - July 29, 1962) was an extraordinarily talented evolutionary biologist, geneticist and statistician.He has been described by Richard Dawkins as "The greatest of Darwin's successors," and the historian of statistics Anders Hald said "Fisher was a genius who almost single-handedly created the foundations for modern statistical science."
Fisher invented the techniques of maximum likelihood and analysis of variance, was a pioneer in the design of experiments, and originated the concepts of sufficiency, ancillarity, and Fisher information, making him a major figure in 20th century statistics.
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Fisher Box J (1978) R. A. Fisher: The Life of a Scientist, New York: Wiley. Yates F & Mather K (1963) Ronald Aylmer Fisher.Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society of London 9:91-120 Available on University of Adelaide website (http://www.library.adelaide.edu.au/digitised/fisher/raf.pdf)
The University of Cambridge Eugenics Society from 1911
www.galtoninstitute.org.uk, 2 Mar 2007 [cached]
The Minute Book with correspondence and Annual Reports of the Cambridge and London Societies provided important information on its functioning and details of the lectures by R A Fisher and W R Inge.
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Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890-1962)
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C S Stock, an undergraduate, became secretary and Fisher was Student Chairman of the Council.
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Fisher proposed a vote of thanks.
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Fisher gave a paper at the second meeting of the undergraduate branch on 10 November 1911 on Heredity covering Biometry and Mendelism explaining that both are important for eugenists. What is interesting is that biometry and Mendelism were considered together and it became the Eugenics Society's public policy to teach and apply both in the study of heredity as Fisher wished to do. His view was that all the best points in man can be improved. There were then several more undergraduate meetings on eugenics and the feeble-minded, Mendelism, eugenics and education, and evolution and society by other undergraduates including Stock and Fisher.
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Punnett, who studied under Bateson and was then his colleague, was the second Balfour Professor and Fisher was to become the third.
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The undergraduate section found this view very important and Fisher proposed that one paper should be devoted to Mendelism each academic year. Punnett's lecture was favourably reported in the Cambridge Daily News (6 December 1911) in addition to mention of distribution to Cambridge members of Major Darwin's presidential address to the parent Society and noting that he would be lecturing in Cambridge the next term.
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On 22 November 1912 Fisher gave a public lecture on "Some Hopes of a Eugenist" ( Eugenics Review, 5, p309-315). There is no record of how this lecture was received. This appears to have been the only lecture that term as there are no records of other lectures, public or undergraduate, but there are records which indicate that the following term lectures were on scientific breeding, eugenic ethics, limitations of eugenic policy, statistical methods (by Fisher), legal difficulties and eugenics and historic Christianity.
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When Fisher went down from Cambridge, the Cambridge Society lost its way and closed down.
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At this stage Ronald Fisher's career was still ahead of him; it was predictably brilliant. A Fellow of the Royal Society at the age of 39 he held the chair of eugenics at University College London from 1933 to 1943 and of genetics at Cambridge from 1943 to 1957. He was knighted in 1952. (see Newsletters 39.6 and 42.4).
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Thanks to Fisher geneticists reconciled Mendelian genetics with Darwinian selection and this led the way to reform eugenics, a combination of heredity and environment which became more relevant politically with the prevailing intellectual move to the left.
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Darwin gave a brief account of the old Society, particularly mentioning the valuable work done for eugenic research by Cambridge men such as Dr Fisher and Dr D Ward Cutler.
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This is an interesting proposal and perhaps it was put forward in view of the fact that in the early years, when Fisher left Cambridge the Society closed down.
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When Fisher left Cambridge either he was unable to find a successor to keep eugenic interest going, or it was a combination of lack of a successor and the First World War.
Egerton had been Professor of Chemical ...
www.denialdelay.org.uk [cached]
Egerton had been Professor of Chemical Technology at Imperial College from 1936 to 1952 and Secretary of the Royal Society for ten years to 1948; Fisher had been since 1943 the Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics at Cambridge and was a past President of the Royal Statistical Society.Fisher, in particular, was a valuable ally to the industry.[22]
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The report also included a six-page paper by Geoffrey Todd, apparently based on an earlier report by Sir Ronald Fisher, casting doubt on the interpretation of the statistics of smoking and health - PRO file MH 55.2232. [back]
Ronald ...
www.arikah.net, 29 Nov 2007 [cached]
Ronald Fisher
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Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS (17 February 1890 - 29 July 1962) was a British statistician, evolutionary biologist, and geneticist.He has been described as:
Ronald Fisher:Ronald FisherRonald Fisher:Ronald Fisher
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Ronald Fisher:Ronald Fisher
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Ronald Fisher:Ronald Fisher
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Ronald Fisher:Ronald Fisher
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Ronald Fisher:Ronald Fisher
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Ronald Fisher:Ronald Fi,her sher
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Fisher was born in East Finchley in London, to George and Katie Fisher.
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Ronald Fisher:Stained glass window in the dining hall of Caius College, in Cambridge, commemorating Ronald Fisher and representing a Latin square.
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Ronald Fisher:Stained glass window in the dining hall of Caius College, in Cambridge, commemorating Ronald Fisher and representing a Latin square.
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Stained glass window in the dining hall of Caius College, in Cambridge, commemorating Ronald Fisher and representing a Latin square.
In 1909 he won a scholarship to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.He was very happy there; he formed many friendships and became enthralled with the heady intellectual atmosphere.
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After graduating, Fisher left Cambridge for a mundane job in London, and it was six years before he found a post that could use his abilities to advantage.
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During this period, Fisher started writing book reviews for the Eugenic Review and gradually increased his interest in genetical and statistical work.He volunteered to undertake all such reviews for the journal, and was hired to a part-time position by Major Darwin.He published several articles on biometry during this period, including the ground-breaking The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance.
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In 1919 Fisher started work at Rothamsted Experimental Station located at Harpenden in Hertfordshire, England.Here he started a major study of the extensive collections of data recorded over many years.This resulted in a series of reports under the general title Studies in Crop Variation.He was in his prime, and he began a period of amazing productivity.Over the next seven years, he pioneered the principles of the design of experiments and elaborated his studies of "analysis of variance".He furthered his studies of the statistics of small samples.Perhaps even more important, he began his systematic approach of the analysis of real data as the springboard for the development of new statistical methods.He began to pay particular attention to the labor involved in the necessary computations, and developed ingenious methods that were as practical as they were founded in rigor.In 1925, this work culminated in the publication of his first book, Statistical Methods for Research Workers.This went into many editions and translations in later years, and became a standard reference work for scientists in many disciplines.In 1935, this was followed by The Design of Experiments, which also became a standard.
In addition to "analysis of variance", Fisher invented the technique of maximum likelihood and originated the concepts of sufficiency, ancillarity, Fisher's linear discriminator and Fisher information.
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In defending the use of the z distribution when the data were not Gaussian, Fisher introduced the "randomization test".To quote from the biographical article by Yates and Mather (referenced below), "Fisher introduced the randomization test, comparing the value of t or z actually obtained with the distribution of the t or z values when all possible random arrangements were imposed on theexperimental data."
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However, Fisher wrote that randomization tests were "in no sense put forward to supersede the common and expeditious tests based on the Gaussian theory of errors."Fisher thus effectively began the field of non-parametric statistics, even though he didn't believe it was a necessary move.
His work on the theory of population genetics also made him one of the three great figures of that field, together with Sewall Wright and J. B. S. Haldane, and as such was one of the founders of the neo-Darwinian modern evolutionary synthesis.
Fisher introduced the concept of Fisher information in 1925, some years before Shannon's notions of information and entropy.
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Fisher was an ardent promoter of eugenics, which also stimulated and guided much of his work in genetics of man.His book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection was started in 1928 and published in 1930.It contained a summary of what was already known to the literature.He developed ideas on sexual selection, mimicry and the evolution of dominance.He famously showed that chance of a mutation increasing the fitness of an organism decreases with the magnitude of the mutation.He also proved that larger populations carry more variation so that they have a larger chance of survival.He set forth the foundations of what was to become known as population genetics.
About a third of the book concerned the applications of these ideas to man, and presented what data there was available at the time.He presented a theory that attributed the decline and fall of civilizations to its arrival of a state where the fertility of the upper classes is forced down.Using the census data of 1911 for Britain, he showed that there was an inverse relationship between fertility and social class.This was partly due, he believed, to the rise in social status of families who were not capable of producing many children but who rose because of the financial advantage of having a small number of children.Therefore he proposed the abolishment of the economic advantage of small families by instituting subsidies (he called them allowances) to families with larger numbers of children, with the allowances proportional to the earnings of the father.He himself had two sons and six daughters.
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The book was reviewed, among others, by physicist Charles Galton Darwin, a grandson of Charles Darwin's, and following publication of his review, C. G. Darwin sent Fisher his copy of the book, with notes in the margin.
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Fisher played a major role in this movement, and served in several official committees to promote it.
In 1934, Fisher moved to increase the power of scientists within the Eugenics Society, but was ultimately thwarted by members with an environmentalist point of view, and he, along with many other scientists, resigned.
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As an adult, Fisher was noted for his loyalty to his friends.Once he had formed a favorable opinion of any man, he was loyal to a fault.A similar sense of loyalty bound him to his culture.He was a patriot, a member of the Church of England, politically conservative, and a scientific rationalist.Much sought after as a brilliant conversationalist and dinner companion, he very early on developed a reputation for carelessness in his dress and, sometimes, his manners.In later years he was the archetype of the absent-minded professor.
Having been brought up in the Church of England, he knew the scriptures well, but was not dogmatic in his religious beliefs.In a 1955 broadcast on Science and Christianity, he said,"The custom of making abstract dogmatic assertions is not, certainly,derived from the teaching of Jesus, but has been a widespread weaknessamong religious teachers in subsequent centuries.
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It was Fisher who referred to the growth rate r (used in equations such as the logistic function) as the Malthusian parameter, as a criticism of the writings of Thomas Robert Malthus.Fisher referred to "...a relic of creationist philosophy..." in observing the fecundity of nature and deducing (as Darwin did) that this therefore drove natural selection.
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Fisher fought back, but he was then exiled back to Rothamsted with a much reduced staff and resources.He was unable to find any suitable war work, and though he kept very busy with various small projects, he became discouraged of any real progress.His marriage disintegrated.His oldest son, an (airplane?) pilot, was killed in the war.
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