Those actions were called "testing," making sure establishments were complying with the new law, said Robert Loevy, professor emeritus at Colorado College.
, 28 at the time, was in Washington, D.C., on a fellowship for young professors in 1963 and 1964.
witnessed much of the pivotal history of the time and worked with key senators on passage of the act.
Four days later, President Lyndon B. Johnson walked past Loevy
and other aides on his
way to deliver the famous speech to Congress where he
promised to pass the Civil Rights Act.
Meanwhile, Loevy in January 1964 had been appointed an assistant to California Sen.
"It was my job to help Kuchel help Dirksen to round up the Republican votes," Loevy
was outside on the lawn June 10 during the vote to end the filibuster.
was in the Senate chambers for the vote.
"You could feel the excitement.
All 100 senators were there."
In one of the most touching moments, Loevy
said, "It was one of the greatest moments of my life to be on the floor of the Senate the moment the act was passed."
The compromise bill went back to the House, where it was approved 289-126 on July 2 and sent immediately to Johnson for his
"My feeling is that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the subsequent Voting Act of '65 and Housing Act of 1968 became the Bill of Rights for minorities," Loevy
The teeth of the act, Loevy
said, was that it cut off U.S. government funds to programs that discriminated.
It pushed state and local governments to integrate their facilities.
It worked instantly because there were two quick court cases, Loevy