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Catholic Central High School
Social Studies - *Richard Gardiner
Doulos Resources-Rooted by Raymond F. Cannata and Joshua D. Reitano
Richard Gardiner, Ph.D.
History Education Professor Columbus State University, Columbus, GA Rich in pastoral insight and readily accessible to a broad readership, this book should become a very popular resource among churches committed to the theological formation of their members.
Never Before in History: Americaâ€™s Inspired Birth | Discovery Institute Press
Gary Amos and Richard Gardiner | 213 pages | $35.00 (retail)
In this textbook, Gary Amos and Richard Gardiner explore how the Protestant Reformation also influenced the thinking of America's Founders, supplying a foundation for core principles like the dignity of the individual, inalienable rights, government by consent of the governed, and the separation of church and state. (more...) In this textbook, Gary Amos and Richard Gardiner explore how the Protestant Reformation also influenced the thinking of America's Founders, supplying a foundation for core principles like the dignity of the individual, inalienable rights, government by consent of the governed, and the separation of church and state. Dr. Richard Gardiner is Associate Professor of Social Science Education at Columbus State University in Georgia. He holds a PhD in History from Marquette University and a Master's Degree from Princeton Theological Seminary. "As historians Gary Amos and Richard Gardiner show in their book Never Before in History, what's especially American, and valuable, is our legacy of religious freedom...
This page has been been thoroughly revised by its originator, Prof. Richard Gardiner.
This library is maintained by Dr. Richard Gardiner, Director of History Education, Columbus State University
According to strict calendric interpretation, Columbus, Mississippi, celebrated the holiday first, on April 25, 1866, but only because newspaper editors fudged the date, said Richard Gardiner, an associate professor of history education at Columbus State University in Georgia, and co-author of "The Genesis of the Memorial Day Holiday" (Columbus State University, 2014).
Columbus, Georgia, where the concept of honoring the soldiers who died in the American Civil War originated, celebrated it a day later, on April 26, 1866, along with dozens of other cities, Gardiner said. [ 6 Civil War Myths, Busted] Columbus, Mississippi, may have celebrated Memorial Day first, but "what's not true is that they came up with the idea," Gardiner told Live Science. In fact, there are many contenders for where Memorial Day started. Some say it started in Waterloo, New York, in 1866, and President Lyndon B. Johnson even signed a proclamation saying so in 1966. But historians have since discredited that claim, Gardiner said. Still, some people still trumpet the claim, including the village of Waterloo itself. Here's why: In the 1880s, a reporter interviewed a source who thought that Waterloo celebrated the day in 1866, but the newspaper later ran a correction saying it was actually 1868. Still, not every newspaper that ran the story included the correction, leading some people to think that Waterloo was the first to celebrate the holiday that Americans call Memorial Day, Gardiner said. However, there's no evidence that this event sparked the national holiday, Gardiner said. People have honored dead soldiers and decorated their graves since the beginning of time, he added. "It's not a question of who was the first person to decorate a grave," Gardiner said. In January 1866, the Ladies' Memorial Association in Columbus, Georgia, passed a motion agreeing that they would designate a day to throw flowers on the graves of fallen soldiers buried at the cemetery, Gardiner said. "You'll find that letter in dozens of newspapers," Gardiner said. "It got out, and it was republished everywhere in the country." In the letter, the ladies asked people to celebrate the war's fallen soldiers on April 26 - the day the bulk of Confederate soldiers surrendered in North Carolina in 1865. "That's what many people in the South considered to be the end of the war," Gardiner said. Even though Gen. Despite the mix-up, Columbus, Mississippi, is often credited as the birthplace of Memorial Day, Gardiner said. Gardiner said, "I don't contest that. Some Southern women noticed that Yankee graves, interspersed with the graves of their loved ones, sat untended, Gardiner said. "They start to see these Union graves that are just laying there, kind of barren," he said. Many Southern women repeated the practice on April 26 in 1866 and 1867, and in 1868, "the story was just so strong and so well known that the authorities in the North said, 'Look, we've got to take this thing and make it national,'" Gardiner said. In May 1868, the day became a federal holiday. But there were few, if any, flowers blooming in the North in April. So, the government pushed the date up a month, to May 30, so that people could decorate the graves of fallen soldiers with wildflowers, Gardiner said. Memorial Day remained on May 30 until 1971, when the Uniform Monday Holiday Act took effect. This act mandated that federal holidays occur on Mondays, and made Memorial Day the last Monday in May, Gardiner said. [ Mysterious Unclaimed Civil War Images] As the holiday spread, people placed flowers on the graves of Confederate and Union soldiers, even if one had been a former enemy. For instance, in 1868, a girl named Jennie Vernon in Indiana sent a wreath with a letter to officials, asking that they lay flowers on a rebel soldier's grave, according to Gardiner . Likewise, some people in the South were upset that the North was "stealing" their idea, Gardiner said. That's why some Southerners still celebrate Memorial Day on April 26, he said. But overall, the holiday has brought people together. Americans still honor it today, with celebrations and remembrances of people who have died fighting for their country, Gardiner said.