(41 Total References)
Professor Norma ...
Professor Norma Mendoza-Denton
Visiting Fellow - Humanities Research Center, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia
Professor - Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles
Professor (on leave 2014-2015) - School of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson
will address a central but often overlooked feature of linguistic variation: it unfolds in the course of interaction, often in conversational interaction.
Most of our models for understanding language variation use pooled language sources, averaging across speakers with similar characteristics, or over many tokens of a linguistic variable for a particular speaker.
These models allow us to look at the overall statistical patterns according to researcher categories, and yet data aggregation obscures the implementation of linguistic variables as they unfold moment-to-moment in an interaction.
For this reason, sociolinguistic theory has a relatively impoverished understanding of the role of language in interactional synchrony and speaker entrainment.Â We understand statistically-robust language patterns as the summation of interactional decision points over the course of many interactions.
will discuss some of the various attempts in the literature to come to terms with modelling variation in interaction, from Condon and Ogston's (1966) early psychologically-oriented work, to the California Style collective's (1993) score setting, to Podesva's (2005) clustering model to Dubois' (2007) syntactic diagraph displays.
will survey the literature and conduct analysis on phonetic and discourse processes present in data from talk-in-interaction, paying attention to sociophonetics, voice quality, gesture, and breathing, with a particular emphasis on understanding the social as well as the linguistic drives in variation.
Norma Mendoza, a researcher ...
Norma Mendoza, a researcher for the University of Arizona was quoted on chiff.com as saying, "Not only do they not realize how the credit card system works, they don't understand how it can impact their prospects for employment when they graduate."Mendoza, who is an assistant professor of marketing and logistics in the Sam M. Walton College of Business, added, "Bad credit or excessive credit card debt is considered a character flaw."
Norma Mendoza-Denton: Why do we ...
Norma Mendoza-Denton: Why do we laud "toughness" in politics?
Norma Mendoza-Denton is an associate professor in the School of Anthropology at the University of Arizona.
is working on a book titled, "Citizen Rage: Town Hall Meetings and the Public Expression of Dissent in American Politics.
While the number of credit card ...
While the number of credit card offers students receive may not have increased, a weak economy may be encouraging more young people to respond to the offers, according to University of Arkansas researcher Norma A. Mendoza.
"We are also seeing credit card marketers targeting younger and younger populations," said Mendoza, assistant professor of marketing and logistics in the Sam M. Walton College of Business.
explained that credit card companies are increasingly targeting high school students.
Some researchers have found that patterns of compulsive buying begin in adolescence.
"It is becoming more apparent that we must start teaching children about credit and personal finances at an earlier age.
By the time they get to the college level, they already have attitudes and habits that are difficult to change," Mendoza
"With all of the discussion about credit cards and debt, it would seem that students would be more aware of the situation," Mendoza
"But year after year the issues don't seem to change.
They seem to be living in a suspended reality, a state of denial."
recalls a day in class when a guest speaker was talking to students about credit issues.
One student confessed to having 20 credit cards, all with maximum balances.
Other students in the class joined the discussion, expressing relief that they only had 5 or 6 cards maxed out.
"It is interesting to see the students' reactions when they actually read the fine print and understand the terms that they agreed to for the first time," said Mendoza
"Not only do they not realize how the credit card system works, they don't understand how it can impact their prospects for employment when they graduate."
points out that background checks, including credit checks are increasingly common in employment situations, particularly for positions in banking, information technology or other positions where there might be a temptation or opportunity to steal money.
"Bad credit or excessive credit card debt is considered a character flaw," she
studies the debt and savings behavior patterns of college students.
has conducted numerous studies on credit card debt topics, including the impact of education about credit on college student's use of credit cards and the relationship between personality and credit card use.
In a recent study conducted with graduate student Helene Cherrier, Mendoza found that college students that plan ahead accumulate more credit card debt than more spontaneous, live-for-the-moment students.
"Most people believe that credit card debt is caused by impulse spending or a lack of self control," Mendoza
"But our research shows that students with a strong future orientation actually depend more on credit cards than students with an orientation to the present."
The undergraduate students sampled in Mendoza's study were given a questionnaire to acquire demographic and financial information and determine their temporal orientation, the degree to which they focus on the present versus the future.
Contrary to the argument that a present orientation leads to credit card overuse, Mendoza
found that those students with a stronger future orientation tended to use more credit cards and to have higher number of credit cards with revolving balances.
also expected to find that students who relied more on credit to finance their current spending would have a high debt-to-income ratio.
This was not the case.
explained that credit card companies are luring young consumers by requiring them to pay only the minimum payment, usually 2 percent of the balance.
So even though students are carrying a large debt burden, they don't perceive it as problematic because it is not a significant portion of their income.
"Unfortunately, this approach leads students to carry debt for longer time periods and to pay more in interest rates," said Mendoza
The Morning News :: News
FAYETTEVILLE -- Norma Mendoza understands the pull credit card offers have on college students. When she was a student, she worked three jobs during one semester and still couldn't pay all the bills -- repairs when her car broke down, school books when her financial aid check was late.
Credit cards saved her
in those situations.They bought her
was able to use them without spending more than she
Not everyone is so lucky.
"It can be a really good tool to use, but it can also be somebody's downfall," she
said. Mendoza, an assistant professor of marketing at the University of Arkansas, has spent much of her career since graduate school studying credit card use among students.She's
done several surveys of students at the Fayetteville campus.The most recent, which was completed in 2000 and presented in 2002, found something surprising:
• Students who plan for the future accumulate the most credit card debt, not spur-of-the-moment spenders.
• College students as a whole are too optimistic about their future finances, Mendoza
said.Students who are more focused on the future often don't worry about accumulating debt because they assume they'll be able to pay it off when they begin working.
"They plan for a big salary at the end of their student career, and it doesn't always materialize," she
In 2002, she
said, 94,000 bankruptcies were filed nationwide by people less than 25 years of age.
"That's not a good way to initiate yourself into the real world," she
Student attitudes toward credit at the Fayetteville campus are similar to students across the nation, she
Credit card companies actively target college students, Mendoza
said.Many cards are designed and marketed specifically for college students in an attempt to build brand loyalty that will continue when students graduate and begin working, she
said the only way to protect students from misusing credit cards in the long run is to educate them about credit -- the good and the bad.
The university offers a course in personal finance, but the lessons it teaches come too late for some, she
said.Attitudes about money develop long before a person reaches the university, Mendoza
said, and once developed are difficult to change.
Education about credit and finance needs to begin much earlier, she
"Until you are burned, or see someone burned, it's hard to change," she
Students rarely understand the full impact a large debt load and a bad credit report can have in later life, she
said.Some employers use credit checks as character references, she
Credit cards can help students in a number of ways, Mendoza
said, if they are used responsibly.Responsible use of credit cards can help students solve temporary financial problems and build a history of good credit, she
said.Having good credit makes it easier for students to buy a car or a home after they graduate and begin working, she
"You are a consumer.As a consumer, you need to be informed," she