(33 Total References)
The Romanian Jewish Community
The military ruler of Romania during the first years of WWII, Marshal Ion Antonescu, a loyal supporter of Hitler and a fierce opponent of the expansion of Soviet Communism.
Antonescu viewed the Romanian Jewish population as "Judeo-Bolshevik" and with this image in the mind of average Romanians, had a free hand to put in motion his plans to kill as many Jews as possible, through forced labor camps .
Antonescu, was eventually removed from power and executed, and under the Communist regime he was declared a war criminal.
For some anticommunist activists (the "dissidents") his persona was transformed into that of a martyr and national patriot.
Most of these supporters deliberately ignore the crimes committed under the direct command of Antonescu
against the Romanian Jewish population.
Indeed, Antonescu's supporters openly dispute the official numbers of Jews
that were exterminated.
Several claim that Antonescu
actually saved the Romanian Jewish population from total extermination.
Using pseudo-scientific explanations they point to the fact that Romania is the Eastern European country with the highest percentage of WWII Jewish survivors.
In their opinion this "fact" makes the numbers attributed to the dead Jewish population in Romania "acceptable" when compared against the numbers of Jews
exterminated in Hungary and other countries.
Until the summer of 2002, numerous streets and public squares were named after Marshal Ion Antonescu
statues were displayed in public places.
Government officials were faced with repeated questions on the measures being taken to prevent the nationalist veneration of Marshal Ion Antonescu
Professor Buzatu is also one of the leaders behind the "Ion Antonescu" foundation which is active in promoting the image of Marshal Ion Antonescu
as a national hero .
a. The elimination from public life of the cult of Marshal Antonescu
, the leader of the totalitarian state in the period 1940-1944, who was subsequently sentenced to death and executed in 1946 as a war criminal.
was responsible for the death of at least 250,000 Jews
throughout the territory of Romania, Basarabia, Bucovina and Transnistria.
b. The prohibition of manifestations of anti-Semitism
and of the denial of the Holocaust.
1. The "Curentul" daily newspaper of August 7 reports: "The Mayor of Flamanzi
in front of the Village Council
The mayor, a member of the National Liberal Party
, states that "even in 10 years from now I will have the same ideas.
I will say the same things.
should be built a golden bust and we should kiss it every day..."
2. On the night of October 11-12, notorious and well-known German slogans were written on the walls of the Jewish Theatre, recalling the extermination camp at Auschwitz.
5. In the hall of the teacher's entrance to the Iulia Hasdeu High School, Bucharest
there is a memorial plaque that commemorates the participation of the King (Mihai I), the ruler of the state (Marshal Ion Antonescu), and the Minister of National Culture
(Ion Petrovici) at the inauguration of the new school building in 1942.
This was the pretext for which Antonescu
ordered the crossing of the Prut, and for which Romania entered into an alliance with the Nazi Germany.
The matter became absurd after it developed into an inversion of relations between the marshal and the Jews "The Jews should erect statues (to Antonescu - our note) themselves... Marshal Antonescu saved the Jews and we shall continue to defend his traces that still exist in the country at present..."
denies that there is anti-Semitism
in Romania today, C.V. Tudor finds its cause.
To summarize his
views: the Jews
, Romanian or Israeli citizens, aim to get rich to the detriment of the Romanians.
This position found supporters in the debates of a private television channel, OTV, where there were reiterated the arguments according to which Marshal Antonescu
actually "saved" the Jews
from Romania, Transnistria being a kind of vacation colony, and that the Jews
thus rescued, instead of being grateful, brought the communism in Romania and contributed to the physical elimination of the political and cultural elite of Romania.
In one of his last acts ...
In one of his last acts as regent, Carol appointed Marshal Ion Antonescu of the Romanian Army as prime minister.
immediately forced Carol to abdicate and then assumed the king's authoritarian powers.
had leaned toward the British and French, in September 1940 France was a conquered nation and Britain could not offer aid to Romania
In an act based more on pragmatism than political belief, Antonescu
requested that Germany send a military mission, and on October 12, 1940, the first German troops began arriving in Romania
As Germany prepared to invade Russia in 1941, Romania
faced a momentous decision.
traveled to Munich where on June 11 Hitler informed him of his
plans to invade the Soviet Union.
pledged Romania's support in liberating Bessarabia and Bucovina but made no promises as to further operations.
At this point, the liberation of Romanian territory was the first and only war aim of the Romanians.
As the Romanian Third and Fourth Armies stood ready on the Prut River, now the new boundary between Romania and the Soviet Union, Marshal Antonescu issued a proclamation to his men: "I am ordering you: Cross the River Prut.
Crush the enemy in the east and north.
The arrival at the former border forced another decision upon Marshal Antonescu
choices were to advance into Russia alongside the German Army
or declare Romania's war goals complete with the liberation of Bessarabia and northern Bucovina and advance no further.
Hitler sent Antonescu
a formal request asking the Romanians to continue their advance alongside the German Army
Hitler enticed Antonescu
with an offer of the Russian region of Transnistria, which Antonescu
Ultimately, however, Antonescu
decided to send his
forces across the Dnestr River and into the Soviet Union.
reasoned that if the Germans failed to destroy the Soviet Army
, the Soviets would return and reoccupy Romanian territory.
feared that if Romania
did not continue as Hitler's ally it would be unable to argue for a reversal of the Dictate of Vienna or, worse, that Hitler would award the Hungarians the remainder of Transylvania as punishment.
One captured Romanian officer told his
Soviet interrogators that his
troops despised Antonescu
for "having sold their motherland to Germany.
Between a political rock and a military hard place and with little support on the home front, Antonescu
reluctantly continued the war alongside his
German allies and pushed farther into Russia.
Instead of being sensitive to Marshal Antonescu's
precarious position, the Nazis engaged in intrigue.
was considered one of the most loyal of the minor Axis leaders, but this meant little to the Nazis.
Heinreich Himmler's SS openly supported Romania's indigenous fascist movement, the Iron Guard.
The SS even supplied the Iron Guard with submachine guns and in January 1941 tacitly supported the Iron Guard's coup against Antonescu
suppressed the coup, the Germans allowed the Iron Guard's leader, Horia Sima, and 300 followers to take refuge in Germany.
OPPOSITE: Romanian Marshal Ion Antonescu
wears the German Knights Cross at his
throat while greeting troops.
The Germans recognized the problem in the autumn of 1942 and proposed to remedy the situation by creating a new army group by dividing Army Group B. The new army was to be called Army Group Don and placed under the command of Romania's Marshal Antonescu.
As the Soviets advanced, Marshal Ion Antonescu
was overthrown and Romania
changed sides, declaring war on Germany.
begged Hitler to allow the German and Romanian armies
to abandon their positions in Bessarabia and pull back to a more defensible line incorporating the Danube River and the Carpathian Mountains, but Hitler refused.
When the Soviets launched an offensive in August 1944, the Romanian and German armies
were quickly driven back.
The reaction in Romania
Two days into the Soviet offensive, Romanian government and military officials deposed Antonescu
, seized control of the government, sued for peace with the Soviet Union, and then declared war on Germany.
On 30.4.43 the German ambassador to Rumania, von Killinger, asked the German Foreign Ministry for information on its final position regarding the emigration of 70,000 Jewish children under eight years of age from Rumania to Palestine - a proposal for which the Marshal Antonescu received the German’s basic agreement” (11) during his visit to the Fubrer (12.4.43).
In a memo dated 1.6.43, von Tadden writes that on 27.5.43 Killinger related by telephone that marshal Antonescu will support the emigration of Jews from Transylvania on Red Cross ships.
5. The request of the Rumanian government to receive permission for the departure of 7,000 Rumanian Jews to Palestine, an approval which the German Foreign Minister already gave to Marshal Antonescu.
The Romanian leader, Marshal Ion ...
The Romanian leader, Marshal Ion Antonescu, managed to get Hitler to agree to an evacuation and non-combat troops were shipped out between 14 and 27 April.
The line had been well and truly broken and Hitler finally agreed to fall back on the FNB line that Antonescu
had first suggested during the summer.
Cease-fire negotiations were completed with the Soviets, ironically Antonescu
had already done most of the groundwork, and at 0030 the Romanian forces in the field were ordered to cease fighting the Red Army
The Romanian Jewish Community
"The Free Romania" newspaper published on February 19th, 2000 the photo of the stern statue of Marshal Antonescu that has been placed for several years in the center of the town of Slobozia.
"The Monitor" also published fragments of the intervention made by Mr Pincu Kaiserman, President of the local Jewish Community, in the City Council: "My conscience forces me to disagree to the erection of the bust of Marshal Antonescu, a man who was supposed to defend the integrity of all the inhabitants of Romania, but who nevertheless allowed for more than 10.000 Jews to be sent to a horrifying death in the death trains - of whom more than half perished in terrible torment".
Marshals Averescu and Prezan awarded orders and medals to many Jewish fighters… As a Romanian citizen, I would add that Marshal Antonescu is also responsible for the death of hundreds of thousands of Romanians who were sent to fight outside the boundaries of the Great Romania, only because he had given his word to Hitler."