By Mark Friedman
About The Author: Mark Friedman served for 19 years in the Maryland Department of Human Resources, including six years as the Departmentís chief financial officer.
After four years with the Center for the Study of Social Policy, he established and now directs the Fiscal Policy Studies Institute in Baltimore, Maryland.
Mark is a member of The Finance Projectís Working Group on Results-based Planning, Budgeting, Management, and Accountability Systems.
Monitoring the Outcomes of Economic Development Programs, Harry P. Hatry, Mark Fall, Thomas O. Singer, and Blaine E. Liner, Urban Institute Press, 1990.
Monitoring the Outcomes of Social Services, Annie Millar, Harry Hatry, and Margo Koss, Urban Institute
Paper on State and Local Government, May 1977.
Performance Budgeting: State Experiences and Implications for the Federal Government , U.S.
General Accounting Office, February 1993.
Performance Indicators in the Public Sector, Paul Jowett and Margaret Rothwell, MacMillan Press, 1988.
Performance Measurement: An Important Tool in Managing for Results, U.S.
General Accounting Office, May 1992.
Performance Measurement in Selected Public Health Programs: 1995-1996 Regional Meetings , Department of Health and Human Services
, Public Health Service.
Performance Measurement Lessons Learned, Thomas J. Cook, Jerry VanSant, Leslie Stewart, and Jamie Adrian, Research Triangle Institute
, May 10, 1993.
Measurement: Report on a Survey of Private Sector Performance
Measures , Department of the Treasury
, Financial Management Service, January 1993.
Measures, Federal Agency Collection and Use of Performance Data , General Accounting Office, May 1992.
A Review of the Oregon and Texas Experience in Building Performance
Measurement and Reporting Systems, Data Selection, Collection and Reporting , National Institute for Literacy, January 1995.
Fourth National Roundtable on Outcome Measures in Child Welfare Services: Summary of Proceedings , American Humane Association
, Childrenís Division, 1997.
Toward Useful Performance
Measurement: Lessons Learned from Initial Pilot Performance Plans Prepared Under the Government Performance and Results Act , National Academy of Public Administration
, November 1994.
Measures in the Federal Budget Process, Congressional Budget Office, July 1993.
Measurement Reports and Documents
Deciding for Investment: Getting Returns on Tax Dollars, Jack Brizius and The Design
Team, Alliance for Redesigning Government
, National Academy of Public Administration
Improving Government Performance
: Evaluation Strategies for Strengthening Public Agencies and Programs, Joseph S. Wholey, Kathryn E. Newcomer, and Associates, Jossey-Bass, 1989.
Management Control in Nonprofit Organizations
, Robert N. Anthony and David W. Young, and Richard D. Irwin, Inc.
, 1994. (See Chapter 12: Measurement of Output.) Performance
Measurement: The Key to Accelerating Organizational Improvement , Price Waterhouse, 1993.
From Outcomes to Budgets: An Approach to Outcome (or Result) Based Budgeting for Family and Children's Services , Mark Friedman
, Center for the Study of Social Policy
, July 1995.
The Guide to Results-Based Accountability
: An Annotated Bibliography of Publications, Web Sites and Other Resources , Harvard Family Resource Project, June 1996.
A Strategy Map for Results-Based Budgeting: Moving From Theory to Practice , Mark Friedman, The Finance Project, October 1996.
and Planning Documents The following budget documents are referenced in the text:
Guide to Performance
Measurement: State Agencies
, Universities, Health-Related Institutions, Texas State Auditorís Office, Legislative Budget Board, and Governorís Office of Budget and Planning
, August 1995.
Legislative Appropriations Request for the Biennium Beginning September 1, 1997: Detailed Instructions for Executive and Administrative Agencies
, The State of Texas: Governorís Office of Budget
and Planning and Legislative Budget Board, April 1996 . The 1993-95 Biennium: Primer to Performance
Budget, The North Carolina State Budget
, North Carolina Office of State Planning
and Office of State Budget
and Management, 1992.
Strategic Planning and Performance
Measurement Handbook: Managing for Results
, Office of Strategic Planning and Budgeting
, Office of the Governor, The State of Arizona
, May 1995.
The North Carolina State Budget
, 1995-1997, Performance
Program Budgets , North Carolina Offices of State Budget
and Management and State Planning, December 1994.