1842-1910, American philosopher, b. New York City, M.D. Harvard, 1869; son of the Swedenborgian theologian Henry James and brother of the novelist Henry James.
(krpln´) (KEY) , 1856-1926, German psychiatrist, educated at Würzburg (M.D., 1878).
also studied under Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig, and was appointed professor of psychiatry at the Univ. of Dorpat, Heidelberg (1891) and Münich
(1903), where he
also directed a clinic.
Kraepelin authored nine editions of a textbook which classified mental diseases according to their cause, symptomatology, course, final stage, and pathological anatomical findings, producing a system of classification which has relevance even today.
established the clinical pictures of dementia praecox (now known as schizophrenia) in 1893, and of manic-depressive psychosis (see depression) in 1899, after analyzing thousands of case histories.
(ä´dôlf m´r) (KEY) , 1866-1950, American neurologist and psychiatrist, b. Switzerland, M.D. Zürich
He emigrated to the United States in 1892 and was professor of psychiatry at Cornell Univ. (1904-9) and at Johns Hopkins (1910-41), where he was also director of the Henry Phipps Psychiatric Clinic.
was active in the mental hygiene movement from its inception (1908), initiating the term "mental hygiene" to describe the maintenance of mental stability.
integrative system of treating mental illness, called psychobiology, demanded that each problem be considered in the light of the patient's total personality.
1829-1914, American physician and author, b. Philadelphia, M.D.
Jefferson Medical College
, 1850, studied in Paris.
A pioneer in the application of psychology to medicine, he
won special fame for his
treatment of nervous disorders and for his
study of the nervous system.
medical works include treatises on snake venom and neurology, as well as Injuries of Nerves and Their Consequences (1872) and Fat and Blood (1877), which summarizes his
well-known rest cure.
(flp´ pnl´) (KEY) , 1745-1826, French physician, M.D. Univ. of Toulouse
After moving to Paris in 1778, he
was appointed (1793) director of the Bicêtre hospital
and shortly thereafter of the Salpêtrière.
Traité médico-philosophique sur l'aliénation mentale (2d ed.
1809), based on observations in both these hospitals, advocated humane treatment of mentally ill persons, then called the insane, and a more empirical study of mental disease.
further contributed to the development of psychiatry through his
establishment of the practice of keeping well-documented psychiatric case histories for research.
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
American physician, b. Boston, M.D. Harvard
He specialized in neurology and abnormal psychology as a physician in Boston and as a teacher at Tufts (1902-12) and Harvard (1926-28).
Founder (1906) and editor of the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, he was a leading investigator of the pathology of mental disorders.
College of New Jersey
(now Princeton), 1760, M.D. Univ. of Edinburgh
On his return to America (1769) he became professor of chemistry, the first in the colonies, at the College of Philadelphia.
A member of the Continental Congress (1776-77), he served for a time in the Continental Army.
In 1786 he
established in Philadelphia the first free dispensary in the United States.
He was a member of the Pennsylvania convention that ratified the U.S. Constitution.
In 1792 he became professor of the institutes of medicine and clinical practice at the Univ. of Pennsylvania (which had absorbed the College of Philadelphia), later becoming professor of theory and practice.
reliance upon the bleeding and purging of patients, particularly in the yellow-fever epidemic of 1793 (in which he
worked heroically), aroused a bitter controversy.
Popular as a teacher, he made notable contributions to psychiatry, was a founder of the first American antislavery society, and helped in the founding of Dickinson College.
From 1797 to his death he was treasurer of the U.S. mint at Philadelphia.
Rush Medical College, Chicago
, was named for him.
principal writings were Medical Inquiries and Observations (5 vol., 1794-98), Essays, Literary, Moral, and Philosophical (1798), and Medical Inquiries and Observations upon the Diseases of the Mind (1812).
(tr´d) (KEY) , 1848-1915, American physician, b. New York City, M.D.
As a result of taking care of his
brother, who had tuberculosis, he
developed the disease.
went to live in the Adirondacks, spending much time in the open, and regained his
Seeking to aid others suffering from tuberculosis, he founded (1884) at Saranac Lake the Trudeau Sanatorium, where he employed the open-air treatment of the disease and organized (1894) the first laboratory for the study of tuberculosis.