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This profile was last updated on 8/12/15  and contains information from public web pages and contributions from the ZoomInfo community.

Dr. James Hawkins

Wrong Dr. James Hawkins?

Animal Program Director

Phone: (301) ***-****  
Email: h***@***.gov
National Institutes of Health
31 Center Dr. MSC 2062 Building 31, Room B1-W30
Bethesda , Maryland 20892
United States

Company Description: About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S....   more

Employment History


  • D.V.M.
  • Ph.D.
  • Ph. D.
  • DVM
44 Total References
Web References
The cattle fluke is most common ..., 3 April 2014 [cached]
The cattle fluke is most common and most widely distributed, according to Dr. James Hawkins, consultant for Merial Animal Health, Jackson, Miss.
"The deer fluke can be very difficult to control in cattle. Both species of flukes can kill cattle, but it is unusual to see cattle fluke actually killing cattle. Most of the time, we just see chronic slowly-developing disease that reduces weight gain or causes weight loss and reduces overall animal health. Cows can become poor doers and eventually get culled," says Hawkins. Flukes damage the liver, which may set up cattle for other problems, such as redwater disease.
"Liver damage affects virtually everything the body needs to do in converting nutrients into utilizable proteins, energy, vitamins, etc. Liver flukes will affect gain in young cattle, but this is usually a slow-developing problem compared to the effect of gastrointestinal nematodes [worms]," says Hawkins.
"One group was treated with injectable ivermectin - to kill GI [gastrointestinal] tract nematodes and nothing else," says Hawkins. Another group was treated for liver flukes only. Another group was treated for worms and flukes. The fourth group served as untreated controls.
"They did this for many years, but the initial study was for 4 years. Dr. J.C. Williams and Dr. Loyacano published the results," Hawkins says.
In young cattle the GI nematodes have the most profound impact on gain, the research shows. "These cattle were on pasture and in winter were on planted ryegrass, supplemented by corn-based concentrate ration so they would gain a pound per day, to reach breeding weight," he explains.
The dewormed group gained an average of 23 to 25 pounds more than the control group, "which actually did pretty well, gaining approximately 1 pound per day. Hawkins says the untreated group gained 53 pounds, which was "more than necessary to be at their proper weight at breeding. Due to the extra 23 to 25 pounds gained by the dewormed group, "that group could have been backed off a little on feed and still attained breeding weight, which would have saved money," says Hawkins.
The group that always did best, in all the years of the study, was the group receiving both treatments - worm and fluke control. "They had better weight gain and increased conception rates," he says.
So they decided to keep that group and follow them all the way through calving, to try to see what was going on," Hawkins says.
Hawkins also found a study in Spain where a theriogenologist had experimentally infected dairy heifers with liver flukes.
This researcher felt that the low progesterone could cause the animals that did get pregnant to lose the pregnancy," says Hawkins.
"This study was done with several thousand bulls over 9 years of breeding soundness exams," says Hawkins.
If it costs you more to finish that animal than normal, you lose money," says Hawkins.
Even if you find them, this doesn't indicate whether there is a significant enough level of infection to make a difference," says Hawkins.
At that point the cow treats it as foreign and walls it off with a fibrous connective-tissue capsule, like an abscess," Hawkins says.
"Because of the fibrous capsule surrounding the flukes, drugs can't touch them. So cattle are a dead-end host once these flukes are in the liver. They cause a lot of damage, however, before they get walled off. All we kill, when treating deer flukes, are the migrating immatures," Hawkins explains.
There are products available elsewhere in the world, but we may never have them here because most of them are carcinogens," says Hawkins.
At this point deer flukes are not as widespread as cattle flukes. "We find deer flukes along the Gulf Coast in certain parts of Texas and Louisiana. We also see them along the Great Lakes, such as Minnesota, Wisconsin, and a few in North Dakota," he says. To know whether deer flukes are a problem in your area, contact the state diagnostic lab and ask if they ever see deer flukes in necropsies, and where, advises Hawkins.
"With deer populations expanding, deer flukes are also expanding their areas. The same is happening with cattle liver flukes. We have ranchers contacting us who thought they never had flukes before but have them now," says Hawkins.
Timing of treatment for cattle flukes is important. It will be different in different regions. "If people know they have flukes they should treat twice a year. Any time an animal dies on your place, get it necropsied or open it up yourself and check the liver. If there is severe damage, you can see it," Hawkins says.
Your strategy there would be to treat for flukes each time you deworm," says Hawkins.
"This analysis confirms that producers ..., 3 May 2007 [cached]
"This analysis confirms that producers who use parasite control in their cow herds can expect a significant increase in pregnancy rates, calf survival and weaning weights - three important factors to a cow/calf producers' bottom line," says Dr. James Hawkins, Associate Director of Merial Veterinary Professional Services.
"Since available flukicides are primarily ..., 5 Aug 2007 [cached]
"Since available flukicides are primarily effective against adult flukes, the best results occur when adults predominate," says James Hawkins, D.V.M., Ph.D., manager, veterinary professional services, Merial.
In cow/calf herds, fluke treatment is generally recommended once a year, while two annual treatments will cover high-risk years or high-risk herds, Hawkins notes.Replacement heifers, young bulls and stocker cattle may need additional treatments due to their increased level of susceptibility and infection.
"For feedlot cattle, or cattle removed from fluke-contaminated pastures, treatment will be fully effective when adult flukes predominate, or when the cattle have been off fluke-infected pastures for at least eight weeks," Hawkins adds.
Beef | AgNewsWire, 17 July 2008 [cached]
"We've known for years that parasite control was critical to the profitable cattle producer, but this study is significant because it proves the value of parasite control in actual dollars and cents," says Dr. James Hawkins, Parasitologist and Consultant for Merial Veterinary Services.
ADVANCE for Medical Laboratory Professionals | Past Online Articles, 5 July 2002 [cached]
By James W. Hawkins, PhD
Dr. Hawkins is president, Hawkins & Associates, a consulting practice in Ijamsville, MD, specializing in business development, technical analysis and due diligence projects in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries.
2. Hawkins JW.Theranostics: New opportunities for drug development and application through genotype-based diagnostics.
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