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James A. Spudich

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Background Information

Employment History

Opening Remarks


Professor of Biochemistry

Stanford Alumni Association


President

The American Society for Cell Biology


Director of Bio-X Program

Cytokinetics , Incorporated


Affiliations

National Academy of Sciences

Elected Member


MyoKardia Inc

Founder


American Academy of Arts and Sciences

Elected Member


Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

Visiting Faculty Member At the National Center for Biological Sciences


American Association for the Advancement of Science

Elected Member


Searle Scholars

Board Member


Cytokinetics , Incorporated

Founder


Bio.com

Board Member


American Association for the Advancement of Science

Fellow


BIO-X

Chair, Executive Committee


Education

B.S.

Chemistry

University of Illinois


M.S.


Ph.D.


Ph.D.

Opening Remarks Stanford University School of Medicine


Web References(104 Total References)


Searle Scholars Program : James A. Spudich (Advisory Board)

www.searlescholars.net [cached]

James A. Spudich
Searle Scholars Program : James A. Spudich (Advisory Board) James A. Spudich Stanford University Former Member of Advisory Board (1987 - 1990)


International study into cardiomyopathy gene mutations - Latest news - Cardiomyopathy UK

www.cardiomyopathy.org [cached]

Dr James Spudich, a co-author of the study and professor of cardiovascular disease in the department of biochemistry at Stanford University in America, said: "These data represent another step in gaining a deeper understanding of the genetic basis of a debilitating disease that affects about one in 500 people."


www.laskerfoundation.org

James Spudich
Photo of James Spudich James Spudich Stanford University School of Medicine By developing systems that allow reconstitution of motility from its constituent parts, Michael Sheetz (Columbia University), James Spudich (Stanford University School of Medicine), and Ronald Vale (University of California, San Francisco) established ways to study molecular motors in detail. The miniscule motors underlie numerous vital processes, and the landmark achievements of Vale, Spudich, and Sheetz are driving drug-discovery efforts aimed at cardiac problems as well as cancer. Fascinated by the mechanism with which ATP drives cellular activities, Spudich joined Hugh Huxley's laboratory as a postdoctoral fellow. Spudich also learned that scientists had discovered actin and myosin inside nonmuscle cells; they had proposed that these proteins power intracellular movements, yet little was understood about the processes. When Spudich set up his own lab in 1971 (UCSF), he embarked on two quests: to establish a way to study movement in a test tube and to explore nonmuscle motility. First test-tube system Over the next dozen years, Spudich laid the groundwork for developing a test-tube - or in vitro - system. Among many challenges, he needed to find a source of actin filaments that faced the same way. Actin's subunit proteins possess directionality and form fibers that 'point' in a certain direction. Inside cells, these tracks foster directed movement. Spudich positioned actin on glass slides and then added myosin-coated beads. Spudich and Sheetz had, for the first time, created an in vitro assay for myosin movement. In 1985, Spudich, his student Stephen Kron, and Sheetz achieved this feat, creating an assay that allowed reconstitution of the process from scratch. In 1986, Kron and Spudich worked out a scheme - similar to the one developed for kinesin - for visualizing actin filaments gliding along myosin-coated surfaces. In 1987, Spudich discovered that myosin's head constitutes that protein's engine, an observation that focused scientists on that portion of the molecule. Sheetz, Spudich, Vale, and others showed how myosin and kinesin harness ATP's energy to generate the power strokes. For instance, Spudich measured the force and step size produced during one myosin reaction cycle, and Vale found that the parts of myosin and kinesin that bind ATP and drive movement strongly resemble each other structurally, even though their amino acid sequences are not similar. Myosin and kinesin operate in a broad range of physiological activities, and Spudich's, Vale's, and Sheetz's breakthroughs have laid the foundation for many potential medical applications. At every step, Vale, Sheetz, and Spudich devised robust experimental systems and ideas with which to attack stubborn problems. Sheetz, M.P. and Spudich, J.A. (1983). Key publications of James Spudich Sheetz, M.P. and Spudich, J.A. (1983). Spudich, J.A., Kron, S.J. and Sheetz, M.P. (1985). Toyoshima, Y.Y., Kron, S.J., McNally, E.M., Niebling, K.R., Toyoshima, C., and Spudich, J.A. (1987). Finer, J.T., Simmons, R.M., and Spudich, J.A. (1994). Single myosin molecule mechanics: Piconewton forces and nanometre steps. Nature. 368, 113-119. Bryant, Z., Altman, D., and Spudich, J.A. (2006). The power stroke of myosin VI and the basis of reverse directionality. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 104, 772-777. Our honorees, Jim Spudich, Mike Sheetz, and Ron Vale, showed how cells use the force-generating molecular motors myosin and kinesin to drive biological processes that include muscle contraction, the heartbeat, cell migration in development, cell division, and the orderly delivery of molecular components to each part of each cell. The studies of myosin and kinesin motor proteins done by Spudich, Sheetz and Vale are all three. Spudich and Sheetz reduced this complex process to just two protein components. It was also universal, because all cells contain structured actin filaments and microtubules, and Spudich, Sheetz, and Vale showed that all cells, not just specialized muscles and nerve cells, use myosin and kinesin motor proteins that move along the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton to organize their contents. Mike Sheetz, Jim Spudich, and Ron Vale illuminated these processes and many more. I am delighted that Tom Reese and Bruce Schnapp - with whom Jim and Ron and I shared a close collaboration - could be with us today. Since that time, Ron, Jim, and I have been interested in fostering multi-disciplinary collaborative environments, because we all agree that they are the best way to stimulate discovery-driven science: Jim through Bio-X and efforts in Bangalore, Ron through his many service and education efforts both in the US and India, and I through interdisciplinary centers in the US and Singapore. Sheetz, M.P. and Spudich, J.A. (1983). James Spudich Key publications of James Spudich Sheetz, M.P. and Spudich, J.A. (1983). Spudich, J.A., Kron, S.J., and Sheetz, M.P. (1985). Toyoshima, Y.Y., Kron, S.J., McNally, E.M., Niebling, K.R., Toyoshima, C., and Spudich, J.A. (1987). Finer, J.T., Simmons, R.M., and Spudich, J.A. (1994). Single myosin molecule mechanics: Piconewton forces and nanometre steps. Nature. 368, 113-119. Bryant, Z., Altman, D., and Spudich, J.A. (2006). The power stroke of myosin VI and the basis of reverse directionality. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 104, 772-777. It is wonderful to share this day with my friends Mike Sheetz and Jim Spudich. In 1980, I applied to the Stanford MD/PhD program, and as fate would have it, I interviewed with Jim Spudich. Jim and I hit it off instantly, a preview of what would become a long friendship with Jim and his family. Meeting Mike Sheetz and learning about his experiments with Jim provided ideas for new experiments on axonal transport using the squid as a model system. Looking backwards, one can appreciate the series of fateful events that have brought Jim, Mike and me together, along with friends who shared in this journey, on this special day in New York City. Interview with Michael Sheetz, James Spudich, and Ronald Vale


Critical Point Dryer - Applications

www.tousimis.com [cached]

Sivaraj Sivaramakrishnan and James A. Spudich
Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 USA


www.keystonesymposia.org

James A. Spudich, Stanford University, USA


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