"Ice crystals inside the cells cause those cells to rupture and die," said Dr. Gerald E. Hackett, Jr., professor of Animal and Veterinary Science, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona.
"Horses out in extreme cold that are unable to find shelter from the wind, or are unable to stay dry, or are unable to take in adequate calories and forage to generate normal body heat are mostly likely to become victims of frostbite," said Dr. Hackett
Horses kept inside metal sheds or plastic-covered wooden barns that do not have adequate ventilation are also at increased risk for exposure and severe respiratory disease.Wind-proofed metal sheds, old barns or wooden sheds wrapped in plastic are not suitable living quarters.Dr. Hackett
also notes that certain molds or plant toxins occasionally found in feeds may cause peripheral vasoconstriction and make an animal much more susceptible to frostbite and/or exposure."While it is a good idea to increase the amount of hay a horse is fed in cold weather, it is never a good idea to feed moldy hay or grain," he