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Wrong Francisco Morazán?

Francisco Morazán

President

CentralAmerica.Com

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I agree to the Terms of Service and Privacy Policy. I understand that I will receive a subscription to ZoomInfo Community Edition at no charge in exchange for downloading and installing the ZoomInfo Contact Contributor utility which, among other features, involves sharing my business contacts as well as headers and signature blocks from emails that I receive.

CentralAmerica.Com

3250 Oleander Way

Pompano Beach, Florida,33062

United States

Company Description

An award winning resource for planning your trip to anywhere in Central America. In addition to extensive background information and maps this site also has all the information you need on hotels, tours, car rentals, transfers and more.... more

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Background Information

Employment History

Head

State of Costa Rica


Web References(37 Total References)


Garifuna History

garifunaheritagefoundation.org [cached]

Three different allied armies attacked simultaneously the government forces in Morazan [He was the president of the Central American Federation].
lthough the Superintendent of Belize hoped and believed that Arce and his followers would win the scuffle, the Federal forces [Morazan's] came up victorious in all the fronts in conflict and the defeated rebels were accused of high treason to the Federation. .Contradiction: The majority of the population of 10 out of the 18 Departments [States] in Honduras,is African descendants : Colon,Islas de la Bahia, Atlantida, Cortes, Gracias a Dios, Olancho, Yoro,Comayagua, Francisco Morazan and Lempira.However ,because the color of the skin is "clearer"and they do not speak Garifuna,they considered themselves "white",and they called Garinagu :"Trigueño",or "Moreno"


Honduras Facts and Figures, Honduras History, Political, Banking, Education, Lifestyle

www.ca-bc.com [cached]

On independence in 1821 Honduras joined the Central American Federation, and the Honduran general, Francisco Morazán, became its first president.
He also entered the phatheon of national heroes after he was killed in the break-up of the federation in 1839.


Garifuna History

www.garifunaheritagefoundation.org [cached]

Three different allied armies attacked simultaneously the government forces in Morazan [He was the president of the Central American Federation].
lthough the Superintendent of Belize hoped and believed that Arce and his followers would win the scuffle, the Federal forces [Morazan's] came up victorious in all the fronts in conflict and the defeated rebels were accused of high treason to the Federation. .Contradiction: The majority of the population of 10 out of the 18 Departments [States] in Honduras,is African descendants : Colon,Islas de la Bahia, Atlantida, Cortes, Gracias a Dios, Olancho, Yoro,Comayagua, Francisco Morazan and Lempira.However ,because the color of the skin is "clearer"and they do not speak Garifuna,they considered themselves "white",and they called Garinagu :"Trigueño",or "Moreno"


www.sahos24.com

1842 - Francisco Morazán, Guatemalan general, lawyer, and politician, President of Central American Federation (b. 1792)


Konrad

www.iacd.oas.org [cached]

Central to the continuing Conservative/Liberal polemic over Central American unity is Francisco Morazán (1792-1842).Morazán fulfilled late nineteenth century Liberals need for a founding father symbol who would legitimize and rally support for Liberal caudillo schemes to unify the region (these schemes numbered twenty-eight by 19421).The purpose of this paper is to trace what historiographic evidence suggests: the conscious development of an "Arthurian" mystique of Francisco Morazán.By developing this issue this paper offers perspective on two other issues surrounding Morazán: his responsibility for disunion and his relationship to British economic and political intrusion on the isthmus. Thus Morazán was a junior member of the family which led the nationalist Honduran elite to challenge Guatemala's Aycinena "family" in their bid for Central American hegemony.Born in Tegucigalpa, 1792, Morazán was still an undistinguished Honduran official when civil war erupted between United Provinces President Manuel Arce and Liberal opponents in 1826.Elected president in 1830, Morazán headed a Liberal experiment in education, ecclesiastical, judicial, and land reform.However, Morazán spent much of his presidency suppressing continued and numerous revolts; ended finally by Rafael Carrera's major 1837 uprising that led to Morazán's exile in 1840.Morazán made one more attempt to reunify Central America, an attempt that ended in his execution on September 15, 1842, coincidentally the anniversary of Central American independence. Written shortly after his death, the first historical accounts of Morazán were criticisms by contemporaries Manuel Montúfar y Coronado, Alejandro Marure, and Miguel García Granados.The most critical, most widely used, and most important of the three earliest accounts is the Memorias de Jalapa, written by a Conservative opponent of Morazán, Manuel Montúfar y Coronado.2 Although he recognized Morazán's military talent, Montúfar y Coronado Morazán ridiculed Morazán as a typical revolutionary demagogue: a mediocrity whom "chance carried to glory."3 According to the author, Morazán's victories were either overblown by publicity or were the product of his subordinates.This became obvious in the Efémerides, Marure's chronicle of political events after 1828, in which Marure criticized Morazán's leaving Guatemala after every campaign against Carrera.Marure felt Guatemala would have been better served if Morazán had stayed to deal with the state's political problems.7 The author belonged to an illustrious Andalusian family that made a fortune in colonial Guatemala.8 García Granados' Memorias covers the years 1811 to 1839, and characterized Morazán as having courage, natural leadership (don de mando), and energy.García Granados maintained that instead of expropriating property and exiling Conservative leaders, Morazán should have taken advantage of the potential for reconciliation existing at the beginning of his regime.By 1871, the historical image of Morazán was one of an inexperienced mediocrity whose personal shortcomings had prevented Central American unification.After the 1871 Liberal revolution in Guatemala, President Justo Rufino Barrios commissioned Lorenzo Montúfar y Rivera Maestre to write the Reseña Histórica de Centroamérica, a partisan defense of Morazán and the United Provinces Liberal regime.Imitating von Ranke, Montúfar adroitly selected "objective" facts to back up his theme: Morazán was the founder of Central America's nationalism, centered in a Liberal agenda.However, Montúfar's most successful witness was Morazán himself.The "Memoria" was also the rationalization of Morazán's 1841 return to Central America, ostensively to fight British imperialism.By highlighting the "Memoria de David" in his biography, Montúfar legitimized the violent takeover of Barrios, and made Morazán into the first Central American anti-imperialist.Morazán is the central figure, and Montúfar here presents the first full narration of Morazán's career.Montúfar builds this image in his comparisons of Morazán to Washington, Lincoln, Bolívar, San Martín, Hidalgo, and Juárez.In 1882, the "La Juventud" Society, the literary society that was the "intellectual wellspring" of Salvadorean Positivism, presented a sixtieth anniversary celebration of Central American Independence with an honorarium and a statue in a plaza newly-dedicated to Morazán in the capital city, San Salvador.Central America's most illustrious writers took the centennial opportunity to complete the deification of Morazán as the symbol of unity and development, already begun in the Reseña Histórica. In these, Montúfar reinforced the Reseña's image of Morazán as the first anti-imperialist martyr against Anglo encroachment.Montúfar even claimed that the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850, whose purpose was to supposedly assure protection of the region from European designs, was the final legacy of Morazán.Montúfar also rationalized Morazán's hostile incursions into Guatemala: "as Garibaldi had to storm Rome to complete the union of greater Italy, so Morazán had to take Guatemala City in 1829 to unify Central America."17 The eulogies pointed out that Morazán was born "in an era in which the whole world was prolific with great men," and that Morazán's victories made him the "most formidable gladiator" of Central American nationalism.19 However, the centennial works that most contributed to the Morazán myth were biographies.Written by writers from all Central American countries, these works identified Morazán with regional unity.They followed the format of the Reseña Histórica, but added information which finally turned Morazán into a larger-than-life myth, forever identifying isthmian unification with Liberalism. The centennial biography by Honduran Ramón Rosa was a major step in Morazán's deification.Rosa validated Morazán's growing association with Napoleon (a popular Latin symbol) by falsely stating his ancestry was Corsican.Rosa was the first to state the existence of an Honduran political dynastic succession consisting of Cecilio del Valle, Dionisio Herrera, and Francisco Morazán.According to Rosa, Herrera carried the spirit of the Enlightenment and French Revolution back to Tegucigalpa, a city of "high ideas and men of enthusiasm," amongst whom figured his protege, Morazán.For Rosa, Morazán was the native son voice crying out in the wilderness, prophesying an era of Central American development and political unity Rosa saw imminent in his time.20 Part of the desire of Rosa's generation to deify Morazán was his self-proclaimed anti-imperialism.Throughout his work, Rosa even equated Morazán with Jesús in his role as moral example and as national saviour.21 According to Reyes, these victories justified traveler John Lloyd Stephen's description of Morazán as Central America's greatest man.22 The last chapter, "Juicio Final," is the favorable comparison between Morazán and Napoleon made by Morazán's French general Raoul. By the close of the Morazán Centennial, Central America's Positivism intellectuals had successfully built a legendary founding father in Morazán.This legend promoted similarities between other nationalist heroes, particularly England's King Arthur and France's Napoleón Bonaparte.Like Arthur, Morazán rose miraculously from obscurity to lead a "round table" of the most illustrious and idealistic civic personages.However, Morazán was constantly in search of a permanent Camelot, as regional jealousies delayed establishment of a Federal District.Like Arthur, Morazán is felled by the forces of traditional superstition and regional rivalry; and similar to Napoleon, Morazán is invincible until his Waterloo of Guatemala in 1840.Morazán created his own version of Napoleon's "Immortals:" the Texiguat Volunteer Cazadores (light infantry).They followed Morazán to exile and to his fatal return to fight foreign encroachment. However, Herrera did not possess his library until 1819, when Morazán was twenty-seven.Hubert Howe Bancroft strengthened Montúfar's Liberal canon of Morazán by using it in his History of Central America.This became the leading nineteenth century work on independent Central America.26 Even Mary Wilhelmine Williams, whose 1920 article conflicted with the then dominant view that the Conservatives were responsible for the Union's breakup, agrees with the Liberal canon that Morazán was "the greatest man Central America knew."27 As shown by historian William Griffith, since the interpretation of Morazán by Montúfar and the Centennialists, no new interpretation or set of issues developed until the last few yea


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