The four European scientists, Bamberg
, Hegemann, Miesenböck
and Nagel, made the fundamental observations and discoveries and developed light-sensitive molecules that can be introduced into specific types of neuron.
In 2003, Nagel, Bamberg
, Hegemann and colleagues described a variant of Channelrhodopsin (ChR2), which allowed more rapid light activation of the associated channel.
Nagel and Bamberg
supplied ChR2 to the two young American scientists, Boyden and Deisseroth, who then successfully expressed ChR2 in mammalian neurons.
Between 2005 and 2007, Hegemann, Boyden, Bamberg
, Nagel and Deisseroth worked to develop optogenetic methods for inhibiting and stimulating neurons.
Ernst Bamberg, Germany, Professor, is Head of the Dept. of Biophysical Chemistry and Director at the Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.