(200 Total References)
Marguerite Laurent.com |The ruling classes have no class and cannot rule
On December 27, 1993, Emmanuel "Toto" Constant and his FRAPH
(Revolutionary Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti) death squads
men staged a riot and the USS Harlan was unable to
After the U.S. military entered Haiti in 1994, Constant
, who by then
had a criminal subpoena and a warrant for his
arrest, escaped an
uninspired "search" by U.S. soldiers and slipped into the U.S. on a tourist
was eventually captured and placed in the custody of U.S.
immigration authorities forover a year.
In 1995, the Haitian government
requested Constant's extradition on charges of murder, torture and arson;
however the U.S. suspended his
deportation, claiming that Haitian courts
could not handle the extradition and instead gave Constant
a green card
to live and work freely in the U.S.
In truth, it appears that the government's change of heart on the
extradition began after Constant
revealed on the television news magazine
"60 Minutes," in December, 1995, that he
had been on the CIA payroll
military rule (1991-1994).
then sued the U.S.
government and threatened to reveal other CIA misdeeds in Haiti if he
staged the Port-au-Prince riot in October 1993 at
Currently, as cluster bombs and daisy cutters fall on Afghanistan, the United States is a friendly host to terrorist Emmanuel Constant
responsible for the murders of thousands.
The government refuses to extradite
him to Haiti despite substantial evidence of his
involvement in death,
arson and torture and despite several requests from the Haitian government.
himself states that FRAPH still operates in Haiti, and he
plans to return soon.
for mortgage fraud is kind of like nailing Hitler for
, July 7:
, of 137-35 225 St. in Laurelton, was
arrested Wednesday and will be arraigned in Suffolk today before Acting State Supreme Court Justice Michael Mullen on charges of first-degree grand larceny,
falsifying business records and forgery, Suffolk district attorney's
Clifford said details of the charges against Constant
were not available
Constant did not return a call to his office at New York Mortgage Co.
LLC in Melville.
When called at his
home, a woman who identified herself
as Constant's wife said she
did not know anything about the charges and
husband was "upstairs sleeping."
has lived in New York since 1995, despite a deportation order
and charges that he led the Haitian paramilitary group, the Front for
the Advancement and Progress of Haiti, during the mid-1990s.
After U.S. forces helped restore Aristide to power, Constant
Service agents captured him in Queens, but Constant
deportation on the ground he
would be killed if sent back.
was released in 1996 on the condition that he
not travel outside New
York City and that he
report regularly to the INS
, now called
Immigration and Customs Enforcement.
In 2000, a Haitian court sentenced Constant
to life in prison following
conviction in absentia for the 1994 massacre.
In a 2005 federal lawsuit, three unnamed women now living in the United
States said Constant's soldiers engaged in a "systematic campaign of
violence against women" under his
rule, and beat and gang-raped them.
has so far largely ignored the lawsuit, the women's lawyers
On Wednesday, a judge ruled against Emmanuel "Toto" Constant because he
failed to meet a deadline to respond to the case.
The suit was launched in December 2004 by a group of women who suffered gang rape and other abuses from Constant's forces.
Constant led the paramilitary group
was arrested in a separate case last month -- not for human rights abuses but for committing mortgage fraud.
Sonnenschein Nath & Rosenthal LLP - Significant Wins in Litigation
Sonnenschein partner Ivor Samson teamed with the Center for Justice and Accountability and the Center for Constitutional Rights to secure $15 million in punitive and $4 million in compensatory damages for three women who survived torture and rape committed during the regime of Emmanuel "Toto" Constant and his brutal death squad, the Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti ("FRAPH").
Samson argued in his closing that in addition to compensatory damages, the court should also award punitive damages to punish Constant
for his wanton, oppressive and malicious actions.
has been living in New York since 1994 and the court's judgment, entered August 16, 2006 marks the first time anyone has been held accountable for the state sponsored campaign of rape and torture in Haiti.
On June 27, 2007, Constant
was deposed in Coxsackie State Prison in New York to try and help identify and locate assets to be able to collect on a portion of the judgment.
HaitiAnalysis.com Abductions of Fanmi Lavalas Leaders Raise Fears in Haiti
Toto Constant Sentenced for up to 37 Years in Jail
Enforcing American Hegemony - A Timeline
The CIA formed FRAPH in the early 1990s, a paramilitary death squad headed by Emmanuel Constant that launched a terror campaign against Artistide's supporters.
Numerous human rights abusers from the military leadership (General Raoul Cedras, General Prosper Avril, Colonel Carl Dorelian, and Emmanuel Constant) took exile in the US after Artistide's re-instatement.
The ex-junta had originally been trained, organized, and funded by US intelligence services and had killed thousands of Haitians during their four years of rule in the early 90s - their founder, Emmanuel Constant, continues to reside protected in the US.
The Saga of 'Toto' Constant - NYTimes.com
A Brooklyn judge's decision yesterday to hold Emmanuel Constant
- a onetime paramilitary leader and C.I.A. informer - for further jail time on grand larceny charges underscores the sad and bizarre aspects of a complex legal case that spans Haiti and the United States and has caught the attention of human and civil rights advocates in both countries.
The paradox is this: In the 1990s, when Mr. Constant was living in Queens, the United States declined to honor an extradition request from Haiti, where Mr. Constant faces charges of brutalizing and killing supporters of the onetime president Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
Now, 10 years later, with Mr. Constant
having pleaded guilty to charges of mortgage fraud, the United States wants to deport him - but Haiti's
justice system is in such tatters that it is unlikely he
would stand trial if sent back.
The son of an army commander (who served under the dictator François Duvalier) and nephew of a bishop (also named Emmanuel Constant), Mr. Constant, known as Toto, was co-leader of the Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti, known by its French acronym, Fraph.
Mr. Constant, a former United Nations diplomat, told The Times in 1994 that he had aspired to become president.
"It is one of my goals getting there," Mr. Constant
said at the time.
With American troops in the streets of Port-au-Prince, Mr. Constant
insisted that Fraph was a political party, not a paramilitary group.
The group agreed to lay down its arms.
At a news conference arranged by the United States Embassy
, Mr. Constant
called on Haitians to "put down their tires, their stones, their guns.
Then it was revealed that Mr. Constant
had been a paid informer of the C.I.A.
for two years - and that the payments had continued even though Mr. Constant
played a leading role in derailing, for a time, the Clinton administration's policy on Haiti.
(While on the C.I.A. payroll, Mr. Constant had organized a violent protest in 1993 that prevented the docking of a Navy ship dispatched to Haiti to help prepare for Mr. Aristide's return.)
To the outrage of many ordinary Haitians, the American troops refused to detain Mr. Constant
, saying that he
was outside the scope of their mission.
When a magistrate summoned Mr. Constant
deputy, Jodel Champlain
, to appear, they simply ignored the order and went underground.
In February 1995, it emerged that Mr. Constant
had been granted a tourist visa to enter the United States and had disappeared from sight.
"Many Haitians are understandably suspicious," The Times said in an editorial.
"They believe that as a former paid informer for the Central Intelligence Agency
, Mr. Constant
has been given safe haven in the United States, or at least allowed to slip conveniently into obscurity here."
A New Life in Queens
That brings us to a white stucco house in Laurelton, Queens, where Mr. Constant
was found hiding in May 1995, and promptly arrested.
In September 1995, a federal immigration judge signed an order to deport him, but his
In December 1995, in a jailhouse interview shown on "60 Minutes," Mr. Constant
confirmed that he
had been a paid C.I.A. informer from 1991 to 1994.
In June 1996, in an apparent deal with the Clinton administration, Mr. Constant
agreed to drop a lawsuit challenging the constitutionality of the statute under which he
was being held.
Officials described the decision not to deport him as extremely unusual and made primarily for political reasons, not legal ones.
A Times editorial said, "The United States has set back the cause of democracy and justice in Haiti
by freeing Emmanuel Constant
from an American jail and postponing deportation proceedings against him."
The controversy dragged on.
In October 1996, Haitian authorities said they had foiled a coup attempt by former soldiers who were arrested at a home owned by Mr. Constant
The same month, a C.I.A. report from 1993 surfaced showing that Mr. Constant had plotted the assassination of Haiti's justice minister.
By 1998, after American authorities agreed to let Mr. Constant live and work in New York temporarily, The Times reported that serious divisions had emerged within the city's Haitian community.
"Some Haitians in New York are now suggesting that Haiti
is racked by too many problems, and question whether its fragile legal system could prosecute such a high-profile case," The Times reported.
lived and worked openly.
has taken a job as a real estate broker, selling houses in Cambria Heights, the heart of the Haitian-American neighborhood in Queens," The Times reported on Aug. 12, 2000.
has been seen greeting friends with a hug and taking cigarette breaks on Linden Boulevard.
And last week, after watching a discussion on public access television about a rally against him planned for today, he
called the station and asked to be interviewed."
In November 2000, Mr. Constant
and 15 others were convicted in absentia of a massacre of slum dwellers in the seaside shanty town of Raboteau in April 1994.
was sentenced to life in prison.
Mr. Aristide again demanded Mr. Constant's
extradition, to no avail.
Fast forward to last July, when Mr. Constant
was arrested and charged, with five others, of taking part in a mortgage fraud ring.
According to the state attorney general's office, they defrauded banks out of more than $1 million in loans by using straw home buyers and inflated appraisals.
has now served about 10 months of a one-to-three-year negotiated sentence for mortgage fraud.
Prosecutors had agreed to a concurrent sentence of one to three years for similar charges in Brooklyn.
At a hearing last week on the Brooklyn charges, lawyers for the federal Department of Homeland Security argued that Mr. Constant
should be sentenced to time served, which would speed his
deportation to face justice in Haiti.
(The federal lawyers submitted this letter [pdf] to Justice Abraham G. Gerges.)
But a lawyer for the Center for Constitutional Rights, an advocacy group, argued that the prison and court systems in Haiti were inadequate for proper handling of the case. (The center outlined its position in a letter and memo [pdf] to the judge.) As Michael Brick reported today, the lawyer, Jennifer M. Green, persuaded the judge to order [pdf] that Mr. Constant serve his full sentence, giving Haiti's justice system time to stabilize.
In a phone interview, Marie P. Pereira, Mr. Constant's lawyer in the Brooklyn case, said that in Mr. Constant's view, "he never ordered the murder of anyone, he never ordered rapes of anyone, he never ordered any of those things that took place.
Nonetheless, Ms. Pereira said that has nothing to do with Mr. Constant's
crimes in the United States.
Paradoxically, Mr. Constant
has said he
is willing to go back to Haiti
- even while predicting that he
might be killed there after stepping off the plane.
We all know that a lot of Aristide's followers are blind and will say what ever it is to see the end of Emmanuel Toto Constant
or anybody else who does not agree with the Lavalasse Gangs.
Now that we all know what kind of person is Mr. Aristide, cant we give Emmanuel Constant
a brake? cant we search and stick to the truth, the reality,not the BS.