And, at the turn of the century, when Fleming
had established her
was working 60-hour weeks for $1,500 a year, far less than a newly employed male assistant.Fleming
, who was paying for her
son to study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
, was by no means happy about the pay gap, and expressed her
annoyance in her
notable achievements - despite having no formal training in astronomy - was a way of classifying stars into 17 different types, which was later named the Pickering-Fleming System.In 1886, she
was in charge of a project to classify thousands of stars by the spectrum of light they produced.Four years later, the Draper Catalogue of Stellar Spectra was published, detailing 225,000 stars in nine volumes.Fleming
discovered a new and easy way of identifying stars of varying brightness, which proved vital to astronomy, and also selected stars that shone with a constant light to act as comparisons, developing "the first photographic standard for determining the magnitude of star brightness". She
also discovered 94 of the 107 Wolf-Rayet stars known at the time; these are "superluminous stars" in which helium, rather than hydrogen, plays the bigger part.In 1898, in recognition of her considerable work, she was appointed curator of astronomical photographs at Harvard.
In 1910 she
published a paper detailing her
discovery of "white dwarfs", very hot stars that tend to have a bluish-white colour, which are thought to be stars in the final stages of their existence.
biggest role, though, was as a trailblazer for women in astronomy.Fleming
had been put in charge of the female computers of Pickering's Harem in the mid-1880s and also become the editor of all the observatory's publications - a role she
disliked, because it got in the way of real astronomy.
Then, in 1893, at the Chicago World's Fair, she
made a landmark speech about women working in astronomy.
Another notable member of the team was Annie Jump Cannon who, on the death of Fleming
, succeeded her and later became the first woman to be awarded an honorary doctorate by Oxford University
The success of these women and others among the computers can perhaps be partly put down to the example set by Fleming
and the way she
led the team.At Harvard
was said to have been "remembered by her
friends and colleagues as a person with a highly magnetic personality and attractive countenance".