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This profile was last updated on 12/29/13  and contains information from public web pages and contributions from the ZoomInfo community.

Mr. David Williams Russell

Wrong David Williams Russell?

FiB Analyst - Group Controllers a...

Shell Business Service Centre Glasgow
Local Address: United Kingdom
Shell companies
12700 Northborough Drive
Houston, Texas 77067
United States

Company Description: Royal Dutch Shell plc is incorporated in England and Wales, has its headquarters in The Hague and is listed on the London, Amsterdam, and New York stock exchanges....   more

Employment History

Board Memberships and Affiliations


  • B.S. , Psychology
    Denison University
  • Ph.D.
    University of California , San Diego
181 Total References
Web References
David Williams ..., 28 Aug 2012 [cached]
David Williams Photo
David R. Williams, PhD, FARVO Vice President-elect
BreakThrough Digest Medical News, 29 Oct 2012 [cached]
In the early 1990s, scientist David Williams, Ph.D., director of the Center for Visual Science, began a series of experiments to look into the eye in unprecedented detail, not only to see the organ's fine structures but also to understand how light moves around inside the eye.
Synapse :: Sensation and Perception [cached]
"We were able to precisely image and count the color-receptive cones in a living human eye for the first time, and we were astonished at the results," says David Williams, Allyn Professor of Medical Optics and director of the Center for Visual Science. "We've shown that color perception goes far beyond the hardware of the eye, and that leads to a lot of interesting questions about how and why we perceive color."
Williams and his research team, led by postdoctoral student Heidi Hofer, now an assistant professor at the University of Houston, used a laser-based system developed by Williams that maps out the topography of the inner eye in exquisite detail. Williams and his research team, led by postdoctoral student Heidi Hofer, now an assistant professor at the University of Houston, used a laser-based system developed by Williams that maps out the topography of the inner eye in exquisite detail.
Williams turned the technique from the heavens back toward the eye to compensate for common aberrations. The technique allows researchers to study the living retina in ways that were never before possible. The pigment that allows each cone in the human eye to react to different colors is very fragile and normal microscope light bleaches it away. This means that looking at the retina from a cadaver yields almost no information on the arrangement of their cones, and there is certainly no ability to test for color perception. Likewise, the amino acids that make up two of the three different-colored cones are so similar that there are no stains that can bind to some and not others, a process often used by researchers to differentiate cell types under a microscope.
Imaging the living retina allowed Williams to shine light directly into the eye to see what wavelengths each cone reflects and absorbs, and thus to which color each is responsive. In addition, the technique allows scientists to image more than a thousand cones at once, giving an unprecedented look at the composition and distribution of color cones in the eyes of living humans with varied retinal structure.
Each subject was asked to tune the color of a disk of light to produce a pure yellow light that was neither reddish yellow nor greenish yellow. Everyone selected nearly the same wavelength of yellow, showing an obvious consensus over what color they perceived yellow to be. Once Williams looked into their eyes, however, he was surprised to see that the number of long- and middle-wavelength cones--the cones that detect red, green, and yellow--were sometimes profusely scattered throughout the retina, and sometimes barely evident.
In a related experiment, Williams and a postdoctoral fellow Yasuki Yamauchi, working with other collaborators from the Medical College of Wisconsin, gave several people colored contacts to wear for four hours a day. While wearing the contacts, people tended to eventually feel as if they were not wearing the contacts, just as people who wear colored sunglasses tend to see colors "correctly" after a few minutes with the sunglasses. The volunteers' normal color vision, however, began to shift after several weeks of contact use. Even when not wearing the contacts, they all began to select a pure yellow that was a different wavelength than they had before wearing the contacts.
"Over time, we were able to shift their natural perception of yellow in one direction, and then the other," says Williams. "This is direct evidence for an internal, automatic calibrator of color perception. These experiments show that color is defined by our experience in the world, and since we all share the same world, we arrive at the same definition of colors."
Williams' team is now looking to identify the genetic basis for this large variation between retinas. Early tests on the original volunteers showed no simple connection among certain genes and the number and diversity of color cones, but Williams is continuing to search for the responsible combination of genes.
John S. Penn, PhD, FARVO ... [cached]
John S. Penn, PhD, FARVO (Vanderbilt University School of Medicine) and David R. Williams, PhD, FARVO, (University of Rochester School of Medicine) are the vice-presidents-elect for that term.
Vice President-elect: David R. Williams, PhD FARVO Williams is currently the William G. Allyn Chair of Medical Optics and professor of Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Optics, Ophthalmology and Biomedical Engineering at University of Rochester and has served as the director of the Center for Visual Science since 1991. He is an editorial board member of the Journal of Vision and has published more than 80 peer-reviewed publications. His work has been recognized with several national and international awards, including ARVO's Friedenwald Award. He is a fellow of the Optical Society of America and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
IEEE ICIP 2002, 1 Jan 2002 [cached]
David R. Williams, University of Rochester
Dave Williams - graduated from Denison University in 1975 with a B.S. in Psychology. He received his Ph.D. from the University of California, San Diego in 1979 and completed a postdoctoral fellowship at Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill in 1980. He is currently William G. Allyn Professor of Medical Optics at the University of Rochester. Since 1991, Williams has served as Director of Rochester's Center for Visual Science, an interdisciplinary research program of 25 faculty interested in the mechanisms of human vision.
Williams' research marshals optical technology to address questions about the fundamental limits of spatial and color vision. He received the APA's Distinguished Scientific Award for an Early Contribution to Psychology in 1986. He was awarded a National Eye Institute Research and Career Development Award in 1986 and a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Fellowship in 1997. He is a Fellow and a former member of the Board of Directors of the Optical Society of America. He received its Edgar G. Tillyer Award for outstanding research in visual science in 1998.
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