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Mr. Chester F. Carlson

Wrong Chester F. Carlson?


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The story of Chester Carlson's ..., 14 Oct 2006 [cached]
The story of Chester Carlson's invention and development of xerography is a classic tale. A result was the creation of the Xerox 914 plain paper photocopier, which Fortune magazine once described as 'the most successful product ever marketed in America'. The story provides axioms about commercialiation and immunises us against get rich quick schemes. It is essential reading for innovators.
Chester Carlson's path to commercialisation of the photocopier
The inspiration for this article is David Owen's original book on Chester Carlson, the inventor of xerography.
It adds considerably to what we know about Carlson and the pre-history of Xerox Corp. The book is titled Copies in Seconds: Chester Carlson and the Birth of the Xerox
Gifts were rare for young Chester. He grew up in great difficulty, bearing the burden of his family's invalid father, poverty and uncertain future. By the time he was 12 or 13 he had become his family's principal provider.
His father's ill health dominated Carlson's childhood, and his mother's early death shocked him. Despite setbacks he completed high school and tertiary education, a CalTech science degree in 1930 and a New York Law School degree in the late 1930s.
As you know, there are dozens of instances of simultaneous discovery down through scientific history, but no one came anywhere near being simultaneous with Chet. I'm as amazed by his discovery now as I was when I first heard of it.'#
5. Name everything, including process
In 1938 inventing the process that gave his path direction, Carlson named it 'electron photography' and then 'electrophotography'.
6. Research and test, then research and test again
In 1938 Carlson and Otto Kornei, one of his early collaborators, produced the first xerographic image using India ink.
But Carlson was thinking about the need for a copier and brainstorming for it well before 1938.
Ten more years of invention, improvement, testing and product research and development lay ahead.
7. Tell stories, promote effectively
In November 1940, when his first patent was issued Carlson got some runs on the board because The New York Times ran a brief story on the front page of its second section.
Carlson returned the favour by hiring Langer to work at P. R. Mallory.
Carlson wrote to numerous companies and did numerous presentations, in the process collecting rejection letters from General Electric, RCA, A. B. Dick, The Charles Bruning Company, IBM and others. He was not a showman, he was necessarily the best man to pitch his idea. He was perhaps too reserved in his manner to be an effective presenter.
By the early 1940s Carlson had no or few funds to invest further; and additionally he had growing responsibilities having become the head of the P. R. Mallory patent department.
His work at his firm resulted in a 1944 presentation by Carlson to scientists and engineers of the Battelle Memorial Institute.
In late 1945 Carlson and the Battelle Memorial Institute settled a first agreement which Carlson described as 'essentially an agency agreement'.
Carlson left his job at Mallory in late 1945, roughly a year after signing his agency agreement with Battelle.
Carlson then came on board as a consultant to Haloid in 1948 on a fee of $US1,000 a month. The way Carlson used his new income is instructive as regards its future impact on Carlson's earnings. Rather than spending the money on luxuries, Carlson sent much of it to the Battelle Memorial Institute.
The Carlson-institute agreement gave Carlson the option of restoring his original royalty rate by reimbursing Battelle, within five years, for half of its spending beyond the original $US10,000.
That five year period was now drawing to a close, and Battelle so far had spent $US40,000 - meaning that Carlson could restore his 40 per cent royalty for $US15,000, or $US1,000 for each percentage point.
In 1948, though, putting more money into electrophotography seemed recklessly speculative to almost everyone but Carlson - who had just received his first royalty payment ever, a cheque for $2,500, representing a quarter of Haloid's first payment to Battelle.
It was only in 1949 that the first xerographic copier, the Model A (see accompanying photo), was introduced by Haloid which had stuck by Carlson through years of substantial investment for a company the size of Haloid.
Carlson wrote a terse correction writes Owen.
Carlson wrote: "Your estimate of my net worth is too high by $US150 million. I belong in the 0 to $US50 million bracket. Carlson had been quietly involved in giving his fortune away.
It is a photo of Chester Carlson and his second wife, Dorris Carlson sitting outside their modest house in 1965.
Following are Dilanchian solutions, brochures, a video tutorial and other articles relevant to the path taken by Chester Carlson and solutions adopted by him to protect, contract and otherwise commercialise his asset.
Toner Cartridge Laser Printer - Ink Cartridges & Printing Problems - Poor Print Quality, 1 June 2008 [cached]
Chester Carlson inventor of xerography founded the Haloid Company on April 18, 1935.
With help from Chester ..., 23 Jan 2014 [cached]
With help from Chester Carlson, the founder of Xerox™ he bought the building at 5423 S Hyde Park Boulevard and the society moved there in 1966. He also established the Vivekananda Monastery and Retreat in Ganges, Michigan in 1971.
Xerography's inventor, ..., 23 Oct 2013 [cached]
Xerography's inventor, Chester Carlson, deserves to be much better known, as do many other inventors whose creations have changed the way we live.
Amazing Inventors You've Never Heard Of
An introverted, solitary Caltech physics grad born in 1906, Carlson grew up supporting his impoverished, ailing parents. Incredibly hard on himself, early on he wrote that he was a "weakling," and a "prig," who was "dull and stupid."
In the 1930s while working in the patent department of an electrical components manufacturer, he had to copy intricate documents by hand and became fixated on inventing a machine that could make copies in an office using dry chemicals. He started experimenting in his Queens kitchen, putting an electrostatic charge into a sulfur-coated metal plate and exposing it to light, filling the halls of his apartment building with the stench of rotten eggs. When the landlady's daughter came to complain, the two fell in love and married.
Later he moved his lab to a small room at the back of his wife's mother's beauty shop in Astoria, where he finally made a breakthrough in 1938, pressing a static-charged plate against a glass microscope slide and exposing it to light. He dusted the plate with a yellow moss spore and then pressed a piece of wax paper against it, heated it and peeled off the paper. Still it took him more than five years until he could fashion a copy machine inside a wooden box.
More than 20 companies rejected his machine until in 1944 a small research organization in Columbus, OH, Battelle Memorial Institute, formed a nonprofit with Carlson to develop the idea.
Carlson became a very rich man, amassing a fortune worth more than $1 billion in today's dollars. Childless, he gave most of his money away to research projects and charities. Caltech built a research lab with funds he donated. Carlson died of a heart attack in 1968.
Everyone around the world is ripping the fruits of the great contribution Chester Carlson made to this world. We SALUTE.
Chester Carlson , the ..., 2 Nov 2012 [cached]
Chester Carlson , the inventor of photocopying, was originally a patent attorney , as well as a part-time researcher and inventor. His job at the patent office in New York required him to make a large number of copies of important papers. Carlson, who was arthritic, found this to be a painful and tedious process. As a result, he was motivated to conduct experiments with photoconductivity. Carlson used his kitchen for his " electrophotography" experiments, and, in 1938, he applied for a patent for the process. He made the first "photocopy" using a zinc plate covered with sulfur. The words "10-22-38 Astoria" were written on a microscope slide, which was placed on top of more sulfur and under a bright light. After the slide was removed, a mirror image of the words remained. Carlson tried to sell his invention to some companies, but, because the process was still underdeveloped, he failed. At the time, multiple copies were made using carbon paper or duplicating machines, and people did not see the need for an electronic machine. Between 1939 and 1944, Carlson was turned down by over 20 companies, including IBM and GE, neither of which believed there was a significant market for copiers. In 1944, the Battelle Memorial Institute , a non-profit organization in Columbus, Ohio , contracted with Carlson to refine his new process. Over the next five years, the institute conducted experiments to improve the process of electrophotography. In 1947, Haloid Corporation (a small New York-based manufacturer and seller of photographic paper) approached Battelle to obtain a license to develop and market a copying machine based on this technology. Haloid felt that the word "electrophotography" was too complicated and did not have good recall value. After consulting a professor of classical language at Ohio State University , Haloid and Carlson changed the name of the process to " Xerography," which was derived from Greek words that meant "dry writing.
Copies in Seconds : How a Lone Inventor and an Unknown Company Created the Biggest Communication Breakthrough Since Gutenberg: Chester Carlson and the Birth of the Xerox Machine
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