by Bruce Arrigo
In this regard, dangerousness functioned as a metaphor (Arrigo, 1996) where the police and psychiatry amounted to "institutions intended to react to danger" (Foucault, 1990:188).
Absent proof that one was a threat to another, one could still be confined, institutionalized, as a danger to one's self (Arrigo, 1993: 7-27), As Arrigo
and Williams conclude (1998: 7): "Thus, any form of danger [became] justification for involuntary (criminal/civil) confinement.
Foucault's (1972) archeology of knowledge, particularly when applied to medicine, demonstrates how medical justice, "speaks a [certain) truth, exercises power accordingly-, and produces a disciplinary society in which people [a]re normalized and de-pathologized" because of their differences (Arrigo, 1993: 49, 135).
The chronicling of metaphors is an extension of my prior work on medicine, law, and crime (e.g., Arrigo
, 1993, 1996).
This war, however, is a fight against that difference which disease signifies (e.g., the mentally ill, the physically disabled, the elderly) (Arrigo, 1996).
Following Foucault (1965, 1973, 1977), medical science is the avatar of truth and, as such, law defers to its pronouncements to advance the episteme of medical justice (Arrigo, 1996: 47-93).
2 There are a few isolated studies. especially including the work, of Szasz (1963, 1987) and Arrigo
(1993, 1996), These projects. though, tend to focus on metaphors in psychiatric justice only.
For an analysis of how the language of crime and medicine produces sustained trunscarcerative practices see Arrigo
3 Criminological scholarship has only recently explored this phenomenon.
For additional theoretical analysis see Arrigo
, 1995: 449-451: Arrigo
and Bernard, 1997: 52-54.
For applications to psychiatric medicine and disordered criminal defendants see Arrigo
BRUCE A. ARRIGO, PH.D.1
California School of Professional Psychology - Fresno
'Direct all correspondence to: Bruce A. Arrigo, Ph.D.
Professor and Director.
Institute of Psychology
Law, and Public Policy, 5130 E. Clinton Way.
CA 93727. (209) 456-2777 Ext. 2290.
This paper was previously published in the Journal of Political and Military Sociology; DeKalb; Winter 1999; 27 (2): 307-322, and has been reproduced with permission.
*Bruce A. Arrigo, Ph.D ., is Professor and Chair of the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of North Carolina - Charlotte, with additional faculty appointments in the Psychology Department, the Public Policy Program, and the Center for Applied and Professional Ethics.
Formerly the Director of the Institute of Psychology, Law, and Public Policy at the California School of Professional Psychology-Fresno, Dr. Arrigo began his professional career as a community organizer and social activist for the homeless, the mentally ill, the working poor, the frail elderly, the decarcerated, and the chemically addicted.
Dr. Arrigo received his Ph.D. from Pennsylvania State University, and he holds a master's degree in psychology and in sociology.
is an internationally recognized scholar who has authored more than (100) journal articles, chapters in books, and scholarly essays.
These works explore interdisciplinary, applied, and policy topics in criminological theory, law and psychology, and problems in crime and social justice.
is the author, coauthor, or editor of thirteen (13) books; including, Madness, Language, and the Law (1993), The Contours of Psychiatric Justice (1996), Social Justice/Criminal Justice (1998), The Dictionary of Critical Social Sciences (with T.R. Young, 1999), Introduction to Forensic Psychology (2000), Law, Psychology, and Justice (with Christopher R. Williams, 2001), The Power Serial Rapist (with Dawn J. Graney, 2001), P unishing the Mentally Ill: A Critical Analysis of Law and Psychiatry (2002), Criminal Competency on Trial (with Mark C. Bardwell, 2002), Psychological Jurisprudence: Critical Exploration in Law, Crime, and Society (in press), Criminal Behavior: A Systems Approach (in press), T he
French Connection: Rediscovering Crime, Law, and Social Change (with Dragan Milovanovic and Robert Schehr, in press), and The Female Homicide Offender: Serial Murder and the Case of Aileen Wuornos (with Stacey L. Shipley, in press).
Dr. Arrigo was the Editor of Humanity & Society (1996-2000) and is founding and acting Editor of the peer-reviewed quarterly, Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice . He is a past recipient of the Critical Criminologist of the Year Award (2000), sponsored by the Division of Critical Criminology of the American Society of Criminology.
He is also a Fellow of the American Psychological Association through the Law-Psychology Division (Div. 41) of the APA.