Antipater had great influence in Palestine and Judea during the period of Aristobulus, Hyrcanus and Pompey
acquired great influence because of his
father's position.He also became an advisor to the Maccabean Queen Alexandra Salome.
In 67 B.C.
, Queen Alexandra died, leaving the Kingdom to her
oldest son Hyrcanus, and her
younger was son, Aristobulus, was eager to have the power.Aristobulus was very strong-willed and self-seeking while Hyrcanus was peaceful and mild.After ruling for about three months he
never really desired to rule and so he
passed all authority on to his
younger brother Aristobulus who made himself king and high priest.The two brothers tried to remain peaceful with each other but it turned into a major struggle (Jos. Antiq. xiv.1.2 ; 4-7; xv.6.4 ; 180; War i. 5.4 ; 117-119).
Antipater encouraged Hyrcanus to flee to Petra and seek help from the Arabian king (King Aretas III), and in 65 B.C.
the Arabian army
marched on Jerusalem to capture Aristobulus.
The Arabians retreated and later Antipater had, realizing that Rome was closely involved with this whole situation, encouraged Hyrcanus to make an appeal to Pompey
in Damascus.Aristobulus decided to do the same.Pompey
decided to side with Hyrcanus because there was evidence of Aristobulus revolting against Rome (Jos. Antiq. xiv.3.3 ; 46, 47).
In 63 B.C. Pompey
made war against Aristobulus, besieging the Jerusalem temple
for three months.When Pompey
won the war he
went into the holy of holies but did not plunder it of its valuables (Jos. Antiq. xiv.4.4 ; 69-72; War i. 6.5-7. 6 ; 133-153; Tac.Hist. v. 9; Appian Mithridatic Wars 106, 114; Florus i. 40.30; Livy 102; Plutarch Pompey xxxix; cf.Dio Cassius xxxvii.15-17) Because of Hyrcanus' loyalty, Pompey gave him authority to rule in Judea, not as a king but as "ethnarch", he remained the high priest and Antipater remained in power as the chief minister of state. (Jos. Antiq. xiv.
4.4 ; 73; War i. 7.6 ; 153).Jerusalem was made a tributary of Rome and it was placed under Scaurus whom Pompey
made legate of the province of Syria.
Antipater proved himself useful to the Romans both in government and in their operations against the Hasmoneans.In 57 B.C.
the governor of Syria
, Aulus Gabinius, broke Judea apart and Idumaea was given to Antipater.Antipater later joined this governor on an expedition to restore Ptolemy XII of Egypt to his throne.
Antipater married a woman named Cypros, of an illustrious Arabian, by whom he
had four sons: Phasael, Herod, Joseph, Pheroras, and a daughter, Salome (Jos. Antiq. xiv.7.3 ; 121; War i. 8.9 ; 181).
It was not long before the Roman civil wars erupted and Hyrcanus, because of Antipater, supported Pompey.Julius Caesar had rescued Aristobulus, who had been exiled, and sent him with two Roman legions to begin a revolt in Judea.Not long after Aristobulus was poisoned and could not follow-through the plan, that's Antipater was spared.
was defeated by Julius Caesar in 48 B.C.
in Egypt (at Pharsalus), Antipater acted shrewdly.He
came to Caesar to aid him when the Roman commander was having serious trouble in Alexandria, and Caesar was so thankful that he
rewarded Antipater with the title of chief minister of Judea
.Caesar also granted him Roman citizenship, and the right to collect taxes for Rome.Antipater himself was also made exempt for any personal taxes.
Immediately after, Antipater went around the country to put an end to the problems and convince the Judean population to be loyal to Hyrcanus.Deep inside though, he
felt that Hyrcanus was an unsuitable leader of Judea
took the country in his
own hands and appointed his
son Phasael as governor of Jerusalem
second son Herod as governor of Galilee (Jos. Antiq. xiv.9.
In 44 B.C.
, Julius Caesar was assassinated, and Cassius, one of the murderers, came to Syria